Annual Report 2000-2001
Swarnajayanti Fellowships programme was launched
with the objective to encourage young scientists to undertake
basic research in frontier areas of science and technology
and achieve standards of excellence, which are comparable
with the best in the world. The fellowships are open to Indian
young scientists, in the age group of 30-40 years, with a
proven track record. The selected candidates are given an
attractive fellowship amount of Rs. 25,000/- per month. A
research programme is considered in the frontier areas of
science, engineering or medicine for a maximum period of five
years. The support under the project covers grants for equipment,
manpower, contingencies, consumables, travel including international
travel and administrative and infrastructural support.
During the current year, two young scientists were selected
for Swaranajayanti Fellowships. They are:
For Young Scientists
- Dr.V.Kumaran, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian
Science, Bangalore, Karnataka.
- Dr.Onuttom Narayan, Assistant Professor, Physics Department,
University of California, USA.
With a view to motivate and encourage Young
Scientists to take R&D as career and retain them in science
the department has continued to play a catalytic role in attracting
young scientists towards science and technology by implementing
a number of programmes. The Young Scientists programme of
DST has the following specific objectives:
- To provide opportunities to Young Scientists for pursuing
exciting and innovative research ideas.
- To provide opportunities for interaction and exchange
of ideas with the scientific community both at the national
and international levels.
- To involve Young Scientists in national S&T development
- To encourage S&T institutions, professional bodies
and other agencies including State S&T Councils to develop
S&T programmes involving Young Scientists.
Some of the major activities and programmes
under this scheme involve supporting international BOYSCAST
Fellowships, Contact programmes and fellowships through S&T
Councils/Departments. The progress and achievement under these
programmes during the current year are described below:
Scheme for Young Scientists
This new initiative launched during the current
year aims at providing opportunities to Young Scientists (below
35 years) for pursuing exciting and innovative research ideas,
providing opportunities for their interaction and exchange
of ideas with the peers in the scientific community and thus
involving Young Scientists in national S&T development
Under this scheme proposals for support were called through
an open advertisement. The proposals to be submitted were
to have the following parameters:
- maximum duration upto 3 years;
- budgetary limit upto Rs 10.00 lakhs for 3 years; and
- PI to get a fellowship of Rs 15,000/- per month if not
drawing any fellowship or salary.
Based on this advertisement, 675 projects have
been received against the advertisement. These proposals were
Peer Reviewed and based on this peer review, 105 proposals
have been approved, so far while 275 projects have not been
recommended for support under this programme.
For Young Scientists In Chosen Areas Of Science & Technology
Linkages have been built with the earlier scheme for Young
Scientists (SYS) from which 55 projects have been accorded
approval based on peer review/ Expert Committee recommendations.
Almost 100 projects have not been found suitable for funding.
In addition on-going releases have been made on 50 projects
in various disciplines. A Group Monitoring Workshop (GMW)
for the projects in the area of Life Sciences, was held on
29-30 December, 2001 wherein progress on 34 on-going projects
was reviewed. A similar workshop for projects in other areas
in likely to be held during March/ April, 2001.
The scheme provides opportunities of young scientists
for visiting international institutions in order to help them
participate and contribute in front line chosen areas of Science
and Technology. The duration of the Fellowship is 3-12 months.
Young Scientists and Technologists up to the age of 35 years
are eligible for the fellowships and once trained in the chosen
areas are able to generate and spread expertise at the national
S&T laboratories. During the current year 39 brilliant
young scientists have been identified for the award of the
BOYSCAST fellowships in in various disciplines of science
and technology such as Modelling in Earth System Science,
Evolution and Dynamics of Indian Lithosphere, Polymer and
Surface Chemistry, Laser Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics,
Bioinorganic and Biomimetic Chemistry, Organometallic, Industrial
Microbiology, Smart Materials/Advanced Materials (Biomaterials),
Advanced Materials (Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes), Smart
Sensors and Materials, Site Directed Mutagenesis, Transducer
and Sensor Technology, Robotics and Automation, Transducers
and Sensor Technology, Molecular Epidemiology, Brain Mapping,
Modelling for New Drug Development, Crop Biotechnology, Molecular
Mapping, Drug Delivery Systems, Molecular Cytogenetics, Transgenic
Plants, Functional NMR, Brain Mapping, Molecular Biology of
Biotic and Abiotic Stress in Plants, Plant-microbe Interaction,
Crop Biotechnology, Molecular Biology of Abiotic Stress, Plant
Genetic Resources, Transgenesis/Reproduction Technology, Genetic
Engineering, Machine Intelligence and Soft Computing, Exploratory
Data Analysis, Development of Synchrotron Radiation Source,
Nanophase Materials, Electronic Materials and Processing.
They are being provided financial support.
The work of awardees of the fellowship during the period 1994-95,
1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98 and 1999-2000 was reviewed during
April 18-20, 2000. It was observed that not only the fellows
had learnt new methodologies and added substantially to the
output of the research teams with which they were associated
but have also received high appreciation from the leaders
of the research groups for their utter dedication, hard work,
and seriousness of purpose. The fellows were able to produce
quality work in a short period of time. Reports of foreign
guides of fellows who have now returned have graded them very
highly and their work at foreign laboratories was considered
of a very high standard. All of them have returned to India
and many of them have received recognition by their employees
(universities, colleges and research institutions) in the
form of promotions, and additional responsibilities. Many
of them had also obtained grants from various sources to pursue
research, while others were waiting to receive communication
about their applications from granting agencies. It was a
matter of great satisfaction that the policy followed by the
DST to send only employed young scientists on this programme
and the rigorous selection and monitoring of their work on
their return had served the anticipated objectives. It has
proved to be a unique programme having a snowballing effect
in keeping highly talented young scientists abreast of new
developments in S&T.
The scheme is aimed at attracting and motivating
brilliant young scientists to take up R&D as a career
by bringing them in contact with eminent scientists and institutions.
The programme also involves training in modern techniques
in various disciplines of S&T. During the period under
report 12 programmes in the area of Advance Physical Chemistry,
utilization of medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Methods of
surface science & Catalysis, Conservation of Biology,
Protoplast Fusion Technology for Strain Improvement in Filamentous
Fungi, Physical Sciences, Watershed Development, Mechanical
Engineering, Cytogenetics and Clinical Genetics in Human Health
and Disease. Environmental Engineering. Over 285 chosen young
scientists have participated/are likely to participate and
benefit from these programmes.
Through State S&T Councils/Departments
This programme was initiated in order to involve
State S&T Councils in R&D activities and strengthen
the same at State level. About 20 fellowships were awarded
through the States S&T Councils/Departments of Kerala,
Rajasthan and Tamilnadu for young scientists to visit and
work in renowned laboratories in other states.
Protsahan Yojana (KVPY)
The Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana programme
moved forward and is already being looked at as the most attractive
scholarship scheme for young students in the country. It is
being coordinated by IISc, Bangalore on behalf of DST.
Science (Physics, Chemistry And Biology Olympiad Programme
During this year, a written aptitude test was organized for
selected students (through structured screening) in the "Science
Stream". This was followed by a rigorous interview held
at several centres in the country. A total of about 120 students
received the KVPY fellowships this year.
For the students continuing from 1999, carefully thought out
summer training programmes were organized at IISc, Bangalore,
IIT, Mumbai and AIIMS, New Delhi. The performance of students
in the summer camps and their scholastic performance in their
respective courses of study were taken into consideration
before continuing their fellowship in 2000.
DST's collaboration with DAE and MHRD continued
in giving strength to the science olympiad movement in the
country. DST's financial support specifically enabled the
Indian teams to participate in International Chemistry and
Participating in the International Chemistry Olympiad for
the second time, the Indian team won 2 silver and 2 bronze
medals again. Every member of the team received a medal.
In its maiden performance at the International Biology Olympiad,
the Indian team won 1silver and 3 bronze medals. Once again,
every member of the team won a medal.
The country with its impressive track record
in the International Olympiad has been successfully able to
get the hosting of the International Chemistry Olympiad for
the year 2002.
Of The Scientific Expertise Of Retired Scientists (USERS)
The Department during the seventh five-year
plan introduced the scheme Utilisation of the Scientific Expertise
of Retired Scientists (USERS). The main objective of the scheme
is to utilise expertise and potential of large number of eminent
scientists in the country who remain active and deeply motivated
to participate in S&T development activities even after
their retirement. The scheme has continued to play a significant
role in involving a large number of retired scientists in
S&T developmental activities. The main activity under
the programme is preparation of books/monographs/state-of-the-art
reports. During the year 2 meetings of the USERS Expert Committee
were held and 21 new projects sanctioned. Final reports on
a few projects were also received. DST's support resulted
in following publications.
- A monograph on Bihar Hairy Caterpillar, Spilosoma Obliqua
Walker (Lepidoptera Arctiidae) dealing with the structure,
development and management of this insect has come out since
the last meeting. Attempt has been made to introduce the
chapters on various body systems in general including whatever
scattered information was available on functional physiology
such as biology, artificial diet, bio-energetic, insect
pest and host specifically and insect-pest management -
some of the latest coined topics which enriches the knowledge
regarding this pest. The document is envisaged helpful for
undergraduates, post-graduates and for those professing
entomology in different Indian Universities and institutions.
- State of the Art on the Production of Ornamental Plants
in India. In this report an account of 330 selected plants,
trees, shrubs and climbers have been documented, though
the list of ornamental plants cultivated in this country
is quite large. Herbaceous plants and seasonals have been
excluded from the study. From these plants it has been observed
that out of 330 plants only 84 have the origin in India
and some other countries combined while 246 are of exotic
- Recent Advances in Agrochemicals - Report dealing with
pesticides of both synthetic and plant origin giving chemistry
of insecticides, nematicides, rodenticides, herbicides,
fungicides, their improved formulation, their environmental
impact, alternative methods of insect pests control could
be of general interest of researchers and students. Quantitative
Structure Activity Relationship and Computer Assisted Molecular
Modeling in Pesticide design has also been discussed besides
suggestions on future developments, Intellectual Property
Rights (IPR) and Indian Patent System etc.
- Phytophthora Diseases in India - the monograph deals with
the description, classification and Identification of Indian
species of Phytophthora along with a world list of species
of this genus. Information on each species has been compiled
and updated to provide information on the crop losses, casual
organisms, epidemiology and disease cycle, host parasite
interaction, and disease management. The work includes information
on isolation techniques and cultivation of Phytophthora
species, methods of inducing zoosporangia, zoospores and
oospores, techniques for soil infestation, description of
Indian Phytophthora, photographs of symptoms, line diagrams
and photomicrographs of various structures of the pathogens
and disease management. Information on the host and parasite
relationship including toxins.
- Introduction to Mushroom Science - the monograph deals
with information on important biological features necessary
for basic understanding of the subject such as sexuality
and mycorrhiza, medicinal poisonous and hallucinogenic species,
nutritional value of mushrooms and conservation of biological
diversity. This monograph is a sequel to the one published
earlier by the author 'Introduction to Mushroom Science
- Systematics' under the USERS scheme. The book is likely
to be published soon.
- The economic plants of North East India gives a glimpse
of the richness of the plant wealth and genetic diversity
of the North East of India which had earlier remained largely
- The book on Plant - Animal Interactions describes mechanism
of interaction between plants and animals at the levels
of species interactions, plant animal interactions, insect-plant
interaction etc. in general and interactions involving insects,
non-ungulate mammalian folivores, frugivores, and seed predators
and mutualistic interactions occurring in soils and having
a strong bearing on forestry and agriculture, which have
otherwise tended to be neglected, in particular.
Of Research In High Priority Areas (IRHPA)
Intensification of research in High Priority
Areas (IRHPA) programme, which was initiated during the 6th
Plan, has resulted in the strengthening of the infrastructure
and research capabilities in selected areas of Science &
Engineering in the country. IRHPA is a complementary programme
to the SERC programme with activities consisting of setting
up of units/ core groups around an eminent scientist and major
National Research facilities to nucleate research activities
in these areas. The scheme has contributed to augment general
R&D capabilities at academic institutions and national
laboratories in the areas of Plasma Research, Crystal Structure,
Robotics, Neuroscience, Laser Spectroscopy, Structural Biology,
Surface Science & Technology, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Technical Acoustics, Geo-centrifuge for Engineering applications
etc. These programmes approved by the Council are multi-disciplinary
and multi-institutional in nature.
Some new programme sanctioned during the year are:
- Research support facility for Ferro magnetic fluids (Bhavnagar
- Facility for Structural Biology (IISc-Bangalore)
- Centre for Non-Accelerator Particle Physics (IIA-Bangalore)
- Biomedical Resonance Research Facility (SG PG Institute
of Medical Sciences - Lucknow)
- NMR facilities (MK University-Madurai, University of Poona-Pune)
- Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometer (IISc-Bangalore)
- Phytochemical Research Facility (Kumaon University-Nainital)
During the current year the Council considered
few selected programmes in high priority areas of Science
and Engineering. Some of the new initiatives are as follows:
In order to intensify research in the field of biomedical
research, a unit on "Biomedical Resonance Research"
has been supported at SG PG Institute of Medical Sciences,
Lucknow. This is an inter-disciplinary and multi-institutional
programme involving four institutions namely SGPGIMS-Lucknow;
Allahabad University; Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
Kanpur; and Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow with
SGPGIMS coordinating the R&D programme. This programme
will focus on different aspects of Health Sciences such as
Cellular & Micro imaging; NMR Spectroscopy; Functional
Image MRI; Image reconstruction and NMR Quantum coupling etc.
This Unit would be one of its kind in the country and will
cater to the need of several hospitals and medical colleges
in diagnosing the problem.
In addition, several other NMR facilities such as 400 MHz,
700 MHz were also approved to study different aspects of Chemical
& Biological Sciences.
Under Physical Sciences, major initiative is to design, develop
and commission a state-of-the art Hybrid Recoil Mass Analyzer
for a range of studies in the hitherto unexplored domains
of nuclear dynamics and structure physics. The programme would
be implemented at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), New Delhi.
In another programme at NSC, preliminary design studies for
setting up a Gamma Detector Array would be taken up to do
high fold coincidence gamma ray spectroscopy to uncover nuclear
behaviour under extreme condition of excitation energy and
Under Chemical Sciences, a major facility has been approved
to probe the structure and reactivity of chemical molecules.
Under this programme, a state-of-the-art facility of Single
Crystal X-ray Diffractometer has been approved for setting
up at Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore.
In order to explore the flora and fauna of Kumaon and Garhwal
region, a facility for Phytochemical Research was also established
at Department of Chemistry, Kumaon University, Nainital.
The progress of all the ongoing programmes were reviewed through
the respective Management Advisory Committees. Based on their
recommendations extension was given to Peptide Sequencing
Facility at IIT-Mumbai; Centre for Study of Ultrafast Processes
at University of Madras; and Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometer
Facility at Mysore University. The last two programmes were
reviewed by the Council during its meeting.
Under the earlier implemented ICOSER project, the Level III
Centres at Panjab University - Chandigarh and IIT - Guwahati
in the NE region were made operational.
The Wind Tunnel Facility at IIT-Kanpur has been formally put
into operation and a user introduction workshop was organised
at Kanpur. A major project to upgrade and modernise the Cyclotron
at Panjab University, Chandigarh and to turn it into regional
PIXE facility was funded during the period.
And Technology Management Information System (NSTMIS)
The National Science and Technology Management
Information System (NSTMIS) continued its efforts of generating
and making available information on resources both manpower
as well as financial devoted to scientific and technological
(S&T) activities by conducting national surveys both through
in-house as well as sponsored studies.
S&T Resources Studies
The national survey for collecting data on
resources devoted to research and development activities for
the year 1998-99 has been completed and the data is under
process. Based on this survey two national level reports entitled
'Research and Development Statistics' and a sectoral report
entitled 'Research and Development in Industry' will be published.
As a by-product of this survey, two other publications titled
'S&T Data Book and Directory of R&D Institutions'
will also be brought out during the year.
The national level report on Research and Development Statistics
will provide information and analysis in forms and variety
like financial and human resources deployed by research institutions/laboratories,
of major scientific agencies, central ministries/departments,
State Government institutions/departments, research stations
and in-house R&D units of public and private sector industries.
Apart from this, the publication will also give information
on patents, enrollment, out-turn, stock of S&T personnel,
Plan/Non-plan allocation for S&T, stock of scientists,
engineers, technicians for selected countries, and R&D
expenditure per capita and as percentage of Gross National
The sectoral report on Research and Development in Industry
will provide detailed information on the financial and human
resources devoted to industrial R&D activities. This report
will also give detailed analysis of data in respect of R&D
expenditure by industry group, by fields of science, by objectives,
by location of R&D centres and by R&D manpower etc.
The latest publication S&T Data Book 2000, sixth in series
covers time series data in variety and form on input resources
(both financial and manpower) deployed in S&T activities
in the country, their international comparisons and some related
socio-economic parameters of relevance.
The division is likely to launch the next national survey
on resources devoted to R&D activities for the year 2000-2001.
The questionnaire is to be modified to bring out the information
in a more cohesive manner taking note of experiences gained
in the earlier surveys. To collect information on extramural
funding survey has already been launched.
Information System/Database Activities
With a view to disseminate information on research
and development (R&D) projects for the benefit of different
interest groups, the National Science and Technology Management
Information System (NSTMIS) Division of the Department of
Science and Technology (DST) continued its efforts to compile
information on extramural R&D projects funded by different
central agencies. Besides maintaining a computerized database
on extramural R&D projects from 1985-86 onwards, the department
publishes annually directory of extramural research and development
projects funded during the year. The preparation of the directory
for the year
1998-99 is in progress and expected to be published during
the year. Also, efforts to collect data on Extramural R&D
projects funded by various Central Agencies for the year 1999-2000,
have been taken.
The scientific and technological activities
play a vital role in the economic, social and physical development
of a country. Scientific and technological research needs
huge investments and calls for a judicious utilisation of
scarce resources like investment, trained manpower, raw materials
etc. The growth of science and technology, its performance
and impact on society and economy are indicators to assess
the effectiveness of planning and policy formulation. For
this purpose it is necessary to build science and technology
information on a continuous basis. The National Science and
Technology Management Information System (NSTMIS) under the
Department of Science and Technology is entrusted with the
task of collection, collation, analysis and dissemination
of vital S&T information at a national level.
With a view to build reasonable database/analyses on S&T
investment, S&T manpower availability/deployment/gap and
S&T indicators, a number of studies were sponsored and
the reports of these studies were widely disseminated to planners,
policy makers and S&T community.
New Projects approved/commissioned during the year :
- Database of extramural R&D projects sponsored by Central
S&T Agencies and analysis of
- Research and Development in Private Sector Industry with
Paid-Up capital of Rs. 50 lakhs and above.
- Academic research underlying industrial innovation sources
characteristics and funding patterns.
- Characteristics of S&T manpower engaged in R&D
activities in the institute under the social economic ministries
of central government.
- Database of ongoing Intramural R&D projects in S&T
institution in India.
As a New Initiative, the division launched a
National Survey on Quantification o launch a large scale sample
survey at National level to quantify the R&D activities
in Small Scale Industries.
International collaboration.of R&D
activities in Academic Sector. The division is also planning
The Department has been maintaining liaison
with UNESCO and other concerned international/national agencies
for the S&T and related statistics.