Annual Report 2001 - 2002
Himalayan Glaciology programme is aimed at understanding
the ehaviour of glaciers and their interaction with climate
and hydrological system and also to train manpower and create
research and development related facilities in this vital
area of societal relevance.The programme is overseen by the
Programme Advisory and Monitoring Committee on Himalayan Glaciology(
PAMC-HG). During the period under report one meeting of the
PAMC-HG was organised. wherein progress of the ongoing projects
on Gangotri Glacier was reviewed and important issues relating
to interaction meet on Glaciology, introduction of Glaciology
in Post-Graduate level etc were dicussed.
The significant achievements during the
period under report are as follows:
Integrated Studies related to Gangotri
In the recently initiated multi-disciplinary
projects related to the Gangotri glacier particularly dealing
with remote sensing, microwave remote sensing, isotopic and
chemical studies, palaeo-climatology, climate change etc for
long term studies, some significant field data has been acquired.
Two more projects dealing with monitoring and modelling of
melt runoff and microbial-biodiversity and environmental quality
studies have been sanctioned. A brief of the progress made
under individual project on Gangotri Glacier is given below:
Establishment and operation of mountain
meteorological observatory at Gangotri Glacier
The aim of this project was to establish high
altitude observatories at Bhojbasa near Gangotri Glacier and
also to establish Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) at :near
snout, ablation zone and accumulation zone..Under this project
Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE), a DRDO built
a permanent station at Gangotri near Bhojbasa. The observatory
at Bhojbasa has been made functional and all weather parameters
are recorded twice a day as per WMO standards manually by
the trained observers. Three Automatic Weather Stations(AWS)
have been established in the area: Bhojbasa(Photo-1), Kalindipass
and Nandaban. One VHF radio communication link has been established
between the observatory at Bhojbasa and R.D.C. SASE, Chandigarh.
The communication link is used for transmitting manually observed
snow and meteorological data to R.D.C; SASE for archival of
both manually observed and the automatic data. Attempt is
being made to make the data available to all users through
Monitoring and Modelling of Melt Runoff
from Gangotri Glacier:
The most suitable site for establishing the
guaging site was selected near Bhojwasa. It was noted that
the pattern of the river flow was uniform and flow was free
from very big boulders. Mannual observations for gauge, velocity
were started just in the upstream of this site. Suspended
sediment data was also collected at the gauging site. Suspended
sediment concentration, load, and particle size distribution
were determined. The work of development of a hydrological
data base has been started.
Isotopic and chemical studies on Gangotri
Glacier : Implicatins to Environmental changes (PRL, Ahmedabad)
The net deposition of chemical constituents
in the glacier is governed by local environmental factors
as well as the long-range atmospheric transport from natural
and anthropogenic sources. In this context, Himalayan glaciers
provide immense potential from which to recover the short
& long term records of the past environment and climate
of Central Asia. A comprehensive study involving measurement
of chemical constituents and isotope tracers has been initiated
in the Gangotri glacier. Spatial samples of snow have been
collected in ultra-clean polyethelene bottles during August
2000 along a traverse with increasing altitude ranging from
4400 to 5800 m. Concentrations of Na and K in snow samples
range from 870-5810 and 820-2850 ng g-1; respectively. Analysis
of other chemical constituents is in progress.
Equally important, large-volume bulk-aerosol sampling has
been initiated at a high altitude station set up at GBIHED,
Almora for isotopic (7Be, 210Pb) and chemical studies. This
has an important bearing on snow chemistry vis-à-vis
atmospheric chemistry In the time-series aerosol samples collected
during September-November 2000 from Almora, the 7Be (a cosmogenic
isotope) concentration varies from 1.3 to 4.9 mBq m-3. Such
a study is advantageous in order to determine the present-day
trends in deposition of chemical species in Himalayan glaciers.
Microbial -biodiversity and environmental quality
studies at Gangotri Glaciers.Water samples have been collected
from 17 sites along the river from Gomukh to Haridwar. In
certain stations drastic reduction in microbial content was
observed which may be due to several reasons viz.time of sampling,
location of sampling in the channel.
Glaciological studies of Dokriani Bamak
glacier in Garhwal Himalayas
Ongoing studies on Dokriani Bamak in the Bhagirathi
River catchment by the WIHG team focused on glacier mass balance,
glacier runoff and its effects on the river hydrologic regime,
sediment transfer from glacierised and non- glacierised regions
and hydrometeorogy of Din Gad catchment. Observations were
initiated in 1998 ablation period and continued in 1999.Three
discharge and three meteorological stations were established
in the Din Gad cathcment to monitor discharge, suspended sediment
concentrations (SSC) and meteorological parameters. .
The salient results of these studies are given
The results show that the discharge at the glacier
snout during the ablation period (May-October) reduced remarkably
through the observation years (62.3x 106m3 in 1994, 53.4x
106m3 in 1998 and 43.3x106m3 in 1999. This reduction is mainly
due to reduced winter precipitation during these years. In
1998 contribution from the glacier catchment to the Gujjar
hut and Tela stations was 47% and 17% respectively, where
as in 1999 it was 60% and 20%. Rainfall contributions in the
glacier discharge has been separated and found to be 7.34
(13%) and 11.7 x 106 m3 (27%) in 1998 and 1999 respectively.
Corresponding total rainfall were 1382mm and 1152mm. Higher
total rainfall component from lower total rainfall in 1999
is found to have resulted from the lower slope lapse rate
temperature experienced in 1999. This study has provided better
understanding of the factors responsible for lowering bulk
runoff from Dokriani glacier during the observation years.
Sediment Transfer studies
Sediment flux studies in the above refered three
stations during 1998 observation period show that 79% of sediment
flux at Gujjar Hut station and 49% at Tela station were contributed
from the glacier catchment. During the peak flow period of
July and August these values were 75% and 54% at Gujjar Hut
station and Tela station respectively. . It is important to
mention that in 1994 observation period (May-October), the
sediment flux at snout station was 15x104 tonnes. Where as
these values were drastically reduced during 1998 and 1999
ablation period to 3.17 and 4.4 x104 tonnes respectively.
These results indicate the prominent influence of glaciers
for the higher sediment flux in headwaters of Himalayan rivers.
This study also shows extreme year to year variability in
the glacial sediment transfer. This type of data is extremely
important for the development of run -off- the river type
hydropower projects. Another important fact that has emerged
from this study is the limited influence of monsoonal rains
on sediment transfer from glacier basin.
Data collected from the three stations were
used to calculate the slope lapse rate of the catchment during
summer months of 1998 and 1999. Slope lapse rates were calculated
from mean daily temperature and averaged for the monthly values.
For Tela- Base camp pair slope lapse rate was also calculated
from daily maximum and minimum temperatures. It is found that
the lapse rate derived from maximum and minimum temperature
were very low and concluded that these method may not be suitable
for mountain areas of high relief. Base camp- Gujjar Hut pair
shows almost 50% reduction in monthly lapse rate in 1999 from
June to September compared to the same period in 1998. These
results emphasis the fact that the selection of slope lapse
rate values for modeling purposes needs to be done judiciouly.
Study of diurnal variations of wind direction
were carried out for the base camp station in 1998 and 1999
ablation period. At 0530 hrs down slope winds from glacier
(NE) were dominant in every month.. From 0830 onwards winds
from SW direction gain dominance. These SW winds are most
dominant during the monsoon season.
Mass Balance studies
The net mass balance during 1998-99 has shown
a negative value of (-) 3.58x106m3 (w.e), which is higher
than the previous years (2.50 x106m3). In 1999 ELA has been
calculated at 5015m as established by mass balance estimations.Altitude
versus accumulation / ablation clearly shows that the net
mass balance is negative in the both the years, however in
1999, melting decreased in the lower altitudinal zones, 3900-4300m
and increased in the upper altitudinal zone,4300-5000m of
the the glacier. The net average snow accumulation measured
from several pits at different altitude in October 1999 recorded
as 40.6 cm (w.equi) for the year 1998-99.
The snout of the glacier was monitored by EDM
to measure the recession during the year 1998 to 1999. The
total recession of the snout at center was 19m where as on
the left and right flank it has receded about 7m and 10m respectively.
The present snout elevation is 3891m.
Study of Atmospheric Deposition on Dokriani-
Bamak Glacier, Garhwal Himalayas
- The study has been carried out by a group at PRL Ahemedabad.
Records of spatial and temporal variations in the chemical
(Na+. K+. Ca2+, Mg2+. Cl-. NO3- and SO42-) and isotopic
( d18O, 210Pb) composition of snow, sampled along a traverse
at an elevation of 3800-4700m, have been studied from Dokriani-Bamak
(DB) glacier (31o49'N, 78o47'E) in the Garhwal Himalaya
(UP). The conditions of sampling and analysis of more than
100 samples were carefully controlled in order to avoid
- The seasonal variations in chemical records from DB glacier
are characterized by relatively higher concentrations of
ionic species when compared to Biafo glacier in the Karakoram.
The ionic concentrations in fresh snowfall during Nov. 1993
are consistently higher than those in surface snow sampled
during May-June 1994. These regional and seasonal trends
demonstrate the greater influence of monsoonal sources of
moisture along the southern slopes of Himalaya. The Cl-,
NO3- and SO42- concentrations in snow range from 340-2100,
30-1800 and 210-1360 ng g-1; respectively. The Cl:Na and
SO4:Na ratios are distinctly higher than those found in
sea-salts; thus suggesting dominance of anthropogenic inputs
transported to the Himalaya with monsoonal circulation.
High Ca2+ concentration in snow are indicative of dust derived
from the arid regions of Indian sub-continent. The ionic
concentrations in the surface snow show an "altitude-effect"
with concentrations peaking at 4300 m. Records from such
glaciochemical investigations are important for understanding
of the regional sources and distribution of chemical species
in the atmosphere.
Isotopic study on Dokriani-Bamak glacier, Central Himalyas
: Implications to climatic changes and Ice Dynamic
Systematic measurements of natural and artificial
radioisotopes (32Si, 210Pb and 137Cs) and oxygen isotopes
( d18O) have been carried out on surface snow and ice, shallow
snow pits and ice core collected from the Dokriani-Bamak glacier,
Central Himalayas, to study the dynamics of glacier ice and
short term climatic changes.
Using 32Si and 210Pb concentrations in the
meltwaters, the radiometric model age of the surface snout
ice is calculated to be 400 years and average past flow rate
is ~14 m/yr for surface ice. The past and present day flow
rates have been evaluated in terms of the dynamics of the
glacier ice. The 137Cs activity, emanated in 1963, measured
in the surface ice at the equilibrium line (4380 m altitude)
yields the flow rate of 32 m/yr. The depth variation of 137Cs
concentrations in a shallow ice core, yields a mean accumulation
rate of 0.43 m/yr for the glacier ice over the past one decade.
The d18O of snout ice (~13.4) is significantly
depleted compared to the average value of -9.2 in the
shallow ice core, indicating that relatively cooler climatic
conditions were prevalent around 1600 AD. The altitude effect
of 0.9 per 100 m in d18O variation has been observed
on this temperate Himalayan glacier. The isotopic study suggests
that the Himalayan glaciers are sensitive repository for the
climate interpretation in the temperate regions during past
few centuries, covering a time span of Little Ice Age (LIA).
Brain Storming Session on Mathematical modelling
In order to create awareness about mathematical modelling
of the various processes related to glaciers a Brain storming
session was organised by the National Academy of Sciences,
Allahabad. The main objectives of the Brain Storming Session
was to examine in depth the immediate areas of studies like:
Water balance and water resources : Weather , Climate and
Environment in relation to Himalayan Glaciers. Some of the
modelling problems that were discussed in the Brain Storming
Session are as follows:
Geophysical processes associated with glaciers;
Glacier atmosphere boundary layer modelling; Modelling of
snow atmosphere interaction; Mathematical modelling in glaciology;
Glacial flow model; Glacial hydrological model; Mass balance
models; Research programme with Antarctic experiments; Mathematical
modelling of flow mechanism of glaciers; Modelling of suspended
sediment transport through the glacier melt stream; The model
thermo-mechanical behaviour of glaciers and energy balance
models over the gaciers etc.
The 5th Training Course in Glaciology was organised
by Geological Survery of India during August / September,2000.The
training programme contained theoretical as well as field
component . The field component aimed at carrying out experiments
on Himtah Glacier, H.P. Fourteen scientists were trained during
this training programme drawn from various academic / research
institutions in the country which include: University of Lucknow,
Patna University, SASE, Chandigarh, B.S.I.P., Lucknow, N.I.H.,
Roorkee, UPRSAC, Lucknow, CWC, New Delhi, SAC, and G.S.I.
Archival search information system for
Hardware and Software for taking up the proposed
work has been procured. Data entery form for documentation
of the relevant literature has been devised. Scanning of 350
abstracts has been completed and formated through tool in
readily usable form. Work is in progress for scanning and
formating of about 200 abstracts. Final product will be available
to users in CDs during 2001, which may be of immense use to
the scientific community .
Inventory of Glaciers
The D.S.T. , assigned a task to Survey of India
to prepare an inventory of major Glaciers in Indian Himalayas.
The inventory was published by the Survey of India during
April,2000. The inventory has been prepared statewise in order
of their locations in J&K and Laddakh Himalayas including
Karakoram range, Himachal Pradesh Himalayas, Garhwal &
Kumaon Himalayas of Uttar Pradesh and Sikkim Himalayas. In
all, the 327 major valley glaciers for the present have been
identified here in Indian Himalayas. Out of these glaciers,
60 are from J&K and Laddakh Himalayas, 85 from Himachal
PradeshHimalayas, 162 from U.P. hills and 20 from Sikkim Himalayas.
The distribution of these glaciers over the Himalayas has
accordingly been shown separately on five different maps on
National Centre for Field Operations and
Research in Himalayan Glaciology (NCFOR-HG):
Significant contributions have been made
in understanding the glacial phenomenon, through the studies
supported by the DST under its Himalayan Glaciology Programme.
However, it is being felt for the last few years that an integrated
effort needs to be made in the direction of setting up the
National Centre for Field Operations and Research in Himalayan
Glaciology (NCFOR-HG) to give proper direction to glaciological
research in the country.
The proposal for setting up NCFOR-HG came up
for a specific mention during the meeting of the Steering
Committee on Integrated Development of Himalaya, held on 06th
July,1999, under the Chairmanship of a Member of the Planning
Commission.To give this idea a concrete form, the Planning
Commission constituted a Sub-Committee under the Chairmanship
of Secretary,DST. The recommendations of the Sub-Committee
were forwarded to the Planning Commission. The proposal is
now under active consideration of the Planning Commission.
Recognizing the importance of earthquake studies
in the Himalayan region, the Department of Science & Technology
had initiated a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary
programme in 1982. Several initiatives were taken up to provide
phillip to the science of seismology. These efforts have resulted
into new data sets to refine our understanding of earthquakes
processes & mechanism. Several site specific studies have
provided high resolution data to refine models and provide
scientific and engineering inputs to developmental projects.
With these initiatives, a broad base at national level has
been created to study various facets of seismology including
earthquake engineering studies. Modern technologies such as
Global Positioning System, SAR Interferometry and other collaborative
geophysical studies were initiated. Keeping in view the recurrent
seismicity of the Indian peninsular region, several important
initiatives were taken. Some of the major initiatives taken
up under the seismicity programme are listed below:
- Several seismological observatories have been established
in North-west Himalayas and North Eastern part of India.
Local dense clusters of seismic instruments including telemetry
systems have been set up in selected geological windows
like the Garhwal and Kumaun Himalayas and some sectors of
- More than 200 strong motion instruments have been set
up in various parts of Himalayas and tall building instrumented
at selected location for structural response studies. These
instruments have generated valuable data sets on the recent
major earthquakes including the latest events of Chamoli
(March 1999) and Bhuj (January 26th, 2001).
- In order to have near-real time access to the seismological
data a project for linking up the existing seismological
network and National Seismological Data Center (NSDC), IMD,
through V-SATs has been sanctioned to National Informatics
Center Services Inc., New Delhi. Presently, the installation
of V-SATs at about 37 observatories is underway.
- The seismological data project database have been established
at Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun and Regional
Research Laboratory, Jorhat, to collate and integrate data.
- In addition to the Himalayan sector, Delhi and its surrounding
area have been taken up for instrumentation. A 16-element
telemetry network, for Delhi region, is under installation
by IMD. Ten stations have been installed and are in operational
Jai-Vigyan Technology Mission project on
Natural Hazard Assessment in Himalayas
Jai-Vigyan Technology Mission Project was launched
in 2000 with the following approved activities.
Setting up of six new seismological observatories
in the North Eastern Region.
Establishment of Geophysical Research Laboratory at Allahbad.
Geotechnical investigations for landslides control measures.
Setting up of a composite multi-parametric geophysical observatory.
- The project for setting up of the six seismological observatories
has been sanctioned to NGRI, Hyderabad. The procurement
of the equipment for these observatories has just been initiated
- The project for setting up of Geophysical Research laboratory
at Allahbad was sanctioned to Indian Institute of Geopmagnetism,
Mumbai. Construction of permanent building for GRL is under
way. Temporary Magnetic Observatory is already functional
at the Govind Vallabh Pant Institute, Allahbad.
- Under the landslides component, five new proposals are
being supported to institutes / Universities in NE region.
National Programme on Global Positioning
The Department of Science and Technology had
launched a national programme on GPS and other geodetic studies
for monitoring the crustal deformation due to earthquake occurrences
and other geodynamic phenomena. The objectives of the programme
- To establish the rate of movement of the tectonic plates
relative to each other.
- To establish the strain rates in different tectonic domains
of India and to constrain strain partitioning in discrete
tectonic domains/block and identify the area of higher strain
build up/ release.
- Permanent GPS Stations at Hanle, Almorah, Kodaicanal,
Leh, Dharmasala, Dehradun, Itanagar, Pune, Bhubaneswar and
Trivandrum. Establishment of Permanent Stations at Lucknow,
Jabalpur, Delhi, Shillong and Dhanbad are under progress.
- A national GPS data center at Geodetic and Research Branch,
Survey of India campus at Dehradun has been established
for storage, dissemination and management of huge amount
of GPS data to be generated from the permanent stations.
Archieving of GPS data, being regularly received from the
three permanent GPS stations at Pune, Bhubaneswar and Trivandrum
is being done regularly.
Studies for the peninsular shield
After the Latur earthquake of September 1993,
the Department of Science and Technology had launched another
major programme to intensify the seismological and geophysical
studies in the peninsular shield region with the World Bank
assistance. Under this programme the major attention was paid
to the upgradation of the existing seismological networking
and procuring of state of the art seismological and geophysical
equipments. The achievements made under this programme are
- Upgradation of seismological observatories of IMD
The India Meteorological Department (IMD)
is the nodal agency in the country for providing services.
It maintains a national network of 45 seismological observatories
spread over the country. Out of 45 observatories, 22 are located
in Himalaya and its adjoining region, the rest being in the
peninsular India. The threshold of detection and location
of earthquakes in Himalayas is estimated to be 4.0 magnitude.
The 10 existing seismological observatories of National Network
of IMD have been upgraded to Global Seismograph Network (GSN)
Standards during 1996-97. These are located at Ajmer, Bokaro,
Bilaspur, Bhopal, Bhuj, Chennai, Pune, Karad, Visakhapatnam,
Another fourteen existing seismological observatories
of national network of IMD were also upgraded with Digital
Broad Band seismographs. These stations are Akola, Mumbai,
Jhansi, Latur, Goa, Mangalore, Bhubneswar, Kolkata, Allahabad,
Nagpur, Shimla, Shillong, Kodaikanal and Delhi. The upgraded
stations have generated effective digital broadband data sets
for important earthquakes like Jabalpur earthquake of 1997,
Chamoli earthquake of 1999 and Bhuj earthquakes of 2001
- Establishment of new Seismological Observatories
Besides the above network, ten new seismological
observatories have been established in the peninsular shield
region which are maintained by various institutes and universities
viz., Geological Survey of India, National Geophysical Research
Institute, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Gujarat Engineering
and Research Institute, Center for Earth Sciences Studies,
Osmania University and National Institute of Rock Mechanics.
These Observatories are located at Bikanoor, Dharoi, Dharwar,
Jabalpur, Kolhapur, Kothagudem and Trissur.
- National Seismological Data Center
One Central Receiving Station (CRS) and National
Seismological Data Center (NSDC) have been established at
IMD headquarters, New Delhi by installing the state-of-art
servers and workstations operating on multi-user and multitasking
environment. The digital data recorded at the upgraded observatories
are being analyzed, processed and disseminated at this center.
A computing facility has also been established
at NGRI for handling the huge digital data sets and the data
analysis, processing and interpretation is being carried out
with the state of the art software.
- d) Local monitoring of seismic activity
Twenty three digital portable field seismograph
systems have been procured for deployment in the field and
monitoring of micro-earthquake, aftershock and swarm type
activities. Some of these units were deployed in Pandhana
tehsil of Khandwa in Madhya Pradesh during, September, 98
- February, 99 for monitoring micro tremor activity, Chamoli
and nearby regions of the U.P. Hills for monitoring the aftershocks
of Chamoli earthquake of 29-03-99. During March 2000 and July/August
2000, these systems were deployed in Koyna, Maharashtra and
Rupa, West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh, respectively
to monitor local earthquake activity. Some of these systems
are deployed in Bhuj and Bhavnagar district of Gujarat.
- Structural Response Studies
Twelve strong motion seismographs for structural
response studies of the buildings were procured and installed
in various buildings in selected cities by Department of Earthquake
Engineering, University of Roorkee. The cities chosen for
this study are Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Roorkee,
Pune, Goa and Ahmedabad.
- Telemetry systems at Khandwa and Koyna-Warna regions.
Three digital telemetered arrays are being established
at Khandwa and Koyna-Warna region and at Tejpur. This project
is being implemented by Geological Survey of India, National
Geophysical Research Institute and Tejpur Universty. The network
at Koyna-Warna region consists of 6 field stations and one
stand-alone digital broadband seismograph at Latur will be
maintained and operated by NGRI. The Khandwa telemetry network
will be installed and maintained by GSI to study the tectonic
activity related to Narmada-Son lineament and Satpura horst
structure. This network consists of 9 field stations and one
stand-alone broadband system.
- Collateral Geophysical Studies
Global Positioning Systems
In order to monitor the crustal deformation
and strain accumulation in the peninsular shield region, 22
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) were procured. Survey of
India and Indian Institute of Geomagnetism were entrusted
the task of covering the regions around Latur and some parts
of Maharastra. Several stations have been occupied and repeated
Surveys are being conducted.
Controlled Source Audio Magnetotelluric
The conductivity of the subsurface structure
plays a vital role in understanding the geodynamic process.
With a view to map the conductivity structures in the active
regions of Peninsular shield, Controlled Source Audio Magneto-Telluric
(CSAMT) was procured. A research proposal for this purpose
was funded to Osmania University. A total of about 40 MT soundings
in Latur and Osmanabad districts. The data analysis and interpretations
are being carried out. New field surveys in other places are
also being planned.
Major achievements emerged out of R&D
- The seismic observatories upgraded under WB project have
improved the location and detection capabilities in terms
of time and precision.
- These observatories have generated good amount of data
sets which can be utilized to investigate various problems
in seismology, e.g., waveform modeling, earthquake mechanism,
composition of earth's interior.
- The data base created at NSDC is available for R &
D purpose to interested scientists.
- The computing facility at NGRI is being fully utilized
by scientists of NGRI and other institutes.
- The building instrumentation data will be useful for
earthquake engineers especially in designing the earthquake
- The building instrumentation has also generated a good
amount of data in respect of Bhuj earthquake.
- Thirty old existing geodetic triangulation stations,
spread evenly throughout Gujarat were reocuppied for GPS
observations. The data indicate that the maximum deformation
of 11.1m in an almost southern direction had occurred apparently
in an anticlockwise swing.
- It has been reported that IIT, Mumbai had acquired GPS
data at 12 stations in Bhuj region and the data analysis
and interpretation are being attempted.
- IIG, Mumbai had carried carried out GPS work in the Bhuj
region and informed that 14 GPS sites were established by
IIG for repeat GPS observations. Amongst these, 12 sites
are located in the Kutch reigon. In addition to the campaign
mode, GPS data is being collected continuously at three
sites viz. Bhuj, Rapar and Ahmedabad. Analysis and interpretation
are under way.
- From the paleo-seismological studies the Earthquake recurrence
period for Kutch region was estimated to be about 800-1000
- The crustal deformation measurements through the GPS
network in western Maharastra will be useful in ascertaining
the potential zones.
- Magnetotelluric studies conducted in Killari region depict
that a thin low resistivity zone between 8-10 km depth.
- ndo-French Collaboration on Natural Disaster Management
An Indian delegation visited France for discussions
with French scientists and science administrators, aimed at
defining a few high impact collaborative programmes in natural
hazard research as well as design and development of necessary
S&T infrastructure facilities that would help as follows
and implement knowledge based approaches to mitigate the adverse
impacts of natural hazards. Accordingly, the first meeting
of the Indian working group for developing Indo-French collaboration
on Natural Disaster Management was held in DST, New Delhi.
After thorough decisions on the various matters including
the French proposal and the report of Indian delegation. The
Indian working group made the following recommendations:
- Preparation of Indo-French proposal on Seismic Risk.
- Creation of Natural hazard database.
- Training programme on Risk Evaluation & Management.
- Concretisation of short term feasibility projects.
- Creation of lay term programmes.
Action on the above recommendations are being
Indo-Italian workshop on Seismic Risk Evaluation
was held at National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad
during 6-8 March, 2001. There were 16 technical presentations
in all by scientist from India and Italy (8 from each side).
The above mentioned workshop recommended three Indo-Italian
Research project as follows:
- Microzonation of selected cities in India.
- Site specific seismic hazard assessment for mega cities
using modeling techniques.
- Estimation of vulnerability and seismic risk assessment
for selected mega cities of high hazard.
An Expert team of senior scientists from
various Indian institutes visited Russia during 26-30 March,
2001 to discuss various issues with their Russian counter
parts and to work out collaborative projects in this field
of seismic instrumentation. GIS applications and earthquake
precursory studies. One of this major recommendation of the
above group was to establish an Indo-Russian Centre for earthquake
studies in India. An expert group was constituted by DST to
formulate a proposal for setting up of Indo-Russian center
for earthquake studies. The expert group unanimously recommended
setting up an Indo-Russian center for earthquake studies in
A comprehensive proposal to set up Indo-Russian
Centre for Earthquake Studies is being evolved through an
New Projects funded
The following R&D projects have been funded
to different organizations during the year 2001-2002:
- Monitoring of earthquakes in and around Mizoaram.
- Bhuj earthquake of 26th Jan, 2001- post- earthquake reconnaissance.
- Aftershock studies i.e. GPS, Geomagnetic leveling &
tidal observatories etc. in the affected region of Bhuj
earthquake of 26-01-2001.
- Micro-seismic zonation mapping.
- Performance based seismic design procedures for bridges.
- Modelling of earthquake source & motion in chedran
fault & its neighbourhood through integrated seismographic
network of broad band & strong motion instrumentations;
An approach towards the estimation of earthquake hazard
in NER India.
- Micrometers study for the evaluation of site response
in National Capital Region (NCT).
- Post earthquake rehabilitation scenario of structures
- Telemetry system for Koyna-Warna region.
- Study of ultra low frequency electromagnetic precursors
- Khandwa digital telemetry seismic network.
- Paleoseismicity & deformation cycle in the Andaman
Nicobar Arc: An integrated study of active tectonic process.
- Establishing of a broad band seismographic station to
monitor seismic activity around Jammu.
- Earthquake hazards assessment through geological evidence
along active fault zones (paleoseismicity) in part of North
- Proposal for film on earthquakes.
- Differential SAR Interferometry to Study co-seismic crustal
deformation due to earthquakes in and around India
- Non-linear forecasting approach to distinguish chaos
and Random fractals from earthquakes.
- Crustal structure & regional tectonics in parts of
seismically actives Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) from
- Seismic studies in Manipur & adjoining areas.
- Morphotectonic study of main seismic source area in Chamoli
- Site specific response studies for seismic microzonation
of National Capital Region (NCR).
- Study of Seismicity in & around Chandigarh by establishing
a network of 3 BB seismographs.
- Study of earthquake source processes, delineation of
active seismic zones and velocity structure in Northwest
- Development of remote sensing based geothermic technique
in earthquake studies.
- Advanced technology based strong motion recorder development
- Determination of transformation parameters between Everest
Spheroid and World Geodetic System-1984(WGS-84) BY SOI,
- GPS Campaign for Crustal movements in and around Palaghat
Zone,Southern peninsular India BY CESS,Trivandrum.
- GPS studies from crustal deformation in Maharastra BY
- Gravity and GPS aided, geoid studies in Ladakh, NW Himalaya
- Microzonation and risk assessment of the landslide affected
areas between Banderdeva -Gohpur in Itanagar Capital Complex,
Arunachal Pradesh using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques.
Initiatives after Bhuj earthquake of January
Foreign Advisory Team
A three member foreign advisory team (FAT) of
experts from USA, Mexico and France was constituted by DST
to formulate suggestions for strengthening seismological and
other geophysical studies in the country. Members of the team,
Professors Max Wyss, Michel Campilo and Sreekrishna Singh
were in India during April 1-15, they visited the earthquake
hit areas and also held discussions with scientists involved
in various programmes and officials of Gujarat state Government.
The FAT has submitted its report with several recommendations
to improve research capabilities in earthquake related studies.
Microzonation studies in Delhi region
The project involves a multi-disciplinary and
multi-institutional participation. The implementation mechanism
is being worked.
Earthquake Risk Evaluation Center(EREC)
An Earthquake Risk Evaluation Center is
being established at India metierological Department, New
Delhi. The main mandate of the center is to collate and integrate
all the existing seismological and collateral geophysical
data and prepare the earthquake risk maps for the country.
The construction related activities of the permanent building
is being initiated.
After the recent Bhuj Earthquake, the Department
of Science and Technology initiated an extensive programme
for GPS campaign in the Rann of Kutchh. It is proposed to
establish 25-30 GPS stations in the area and a few reference
stations outside the earthquake affected region. The aim of
establishing these stations is to monitor the deformation
of the region near the epicenter of the Bhuj Earthquake. Several
projects in this regard have been supported to various institutes
viz., IIG, Mumbai, IIT, Mumbai and SOI, Dehradun.
Training Programmes /Workshops/Conferences
- International conference on Seismic hazard with particular
reference to Bhuj earthquake of January 26, 2001 was held
at New Delhi duri ng 3-5 October 2001
- A training programme on "The Global Positioning
System and its applications" was organized during 9-19th
May 2000 at IIT, Mumbai.
- A short term training course on GPS for crustal deformation
study is being organized in the at Itanagar to train the
local scientists of the North Eastern region.
- A Workshop on "Earthquake strategies with particular
reference to India' was held at India Inernational Centre
, Lodi Road during 6th-7th July 2001.