Annual Report 2004-2005
Meteorology Mapping and Survey
India Meteorological Department
Advanced Technology Support - Doppler Weather
- S-Band Doppler Weather Radar Meteor 1500S imported from
M/S Gematronik, Germany has been installed, commissioned
and operationalized at Cyclone Detection Radar, Machilipatnam
(Andhra Pradesh) with effect from 8th December 2004.
- One more S-Band Doppler Weather Radar imported from M/S
Gematronik, Germany received at Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).
This will replace the existing old and obsolete, conventional
S-Band radar at Cyclone Detection Radar, Visakhapatnam shortly.
- A computer system comprising of an Altix-350 (Dual Itanium
Processor), Xeon based Server, Sony tape backup device and
A0 plotter was commissioned in September 2004 in NHAC (Computer)
for data processing, chart plotting & running regional
& meso-scale models.
- As part of modernization of airport meteorological instruments,
newly designed Digital Distant indicating Wind Equipment
for monitoring wind has been installed at five airports
- A Wind Profiler/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (WP/RASS)
for taking vertical wind and temperature observations is
also installed in the AWS campus. In addition to the daily
observations, special observations for higher and lower
heights are also taken during foggy conditions.
Weather Observation System
(a) 3.8 meter dish antenna
for Automatic Weather Station data receiving ground station
were installed at various centres and also at AWS Laboratories
Campus, Pashan, Pune.
(b) A new state of the art
system for monitoring height of base of low clouds viz Laser
Ceilometers have been installed at 8 airports.
(c) A data logger system
for radiation measurement has been installed at CAg. MO for
(d) 64 KBPS Circuit between RTH New Delhi and M.O.Chennai
(e) Automatic Self Briefing System (ASBS) for Meteorology
Product was established on trial basis successfully at Chennai
Airport on 4th November 2004.
(a) Environmental test chamber
for calibrating radiosonde pressure sensors manufactured in
IMD has been installed in June 2004.
(b) Hand held data logger
with software for computing pilot balloon ascents has been
developed for achieving automation and is being installed
in IMD Pilot Balloon network. These will be installed at three
stations initially and later at rest of the stations.
(c) High technology state of the art radio-theodolite (IMS-1500)
installed at Guwahati & Kolkata.
(d) Automatic computing system for radiosonde ascent has been
installed at various RS/RW Stations.
Mountain Meteorology Project, now renamed as
Project PARVAT, was a joint project for 5 years
(1999-2004) being executed by DRDO (SASE), MO (Army), Air
Force and DST (IMD & NCMRWF). This project has now been
further extended for execution till 2005. The project is framed
to improve Weather and Avalanche Forecasting over Western
(a) An earthquake of great magnitude occurred
on 26th December 2004 at 06 Hrs. 29 Minutes IST with its epicenter
at 3.3° N Latitude and 96.1° E Longitude, off West
Coast of Sumatra Island region. The earthquake has been felt
widely in parts of South India. The earthquake has given rise
to Tsunamis, which hit the Andaman & Nicobar Islands and
East coast of India. Tsunamis are responsible for the damage
observed in the East coast of India. The great Sumatra earthquake
was followed by several after-shocks of moderate magnitude.
The after-shock activity is still continuing and is being
monitored. Till 10.00 hrs. IST of 3rd January 2005, ninety-three
after-shocks (M>=5.0) have been recorded.
(b) EREC actively participated in a DST sponsored pilot project
on seismic microzonation of Jabalpur which has been completed.
EREC is also actively participating in DST sponsored seismic
microzonation studies of Guwahati and Delhi.
(c) Micro-earthquake surveys were carried out to monitor sporadic
earthquake activity reported in parts of Jind (Haryana). A
local seismic network of five stations has also been established
to strengthen the VSAT based seismic telemetry network in
and around Delhi to monitor the reported tremor activity in
April 2004 in Delhi.
(a) Satellite applications being carried out
in various fields are as follows:
- INSAT Meteorological Data Processing System (IMDPS);
- High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) Data Receiving
- Primary Data Utilization Station (PDUS);
- Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD); and
- Data Collection Platforms (DCP).
Digital Cyclone Warning Dissemination System
(DCWDS) uplink facility at RMC Chennai and the equipment at
100 DCWDS field stations in Andhra Pradesh installed under
World Bank Project has been taken over by IMD.
(b) Meteorological support was provided for
successful launching of Educational Satellite (EDUSAT) at
Modernized Telecommunication Facilities
(a) India Meteorological Department has a very
extensive telecommunication network with a central hub at
its National Meteorological Centre (NMTC), New Delhi connected
with five Regional Message Switching Centres at Delhi (Airport),
Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Guwahati. For collection of meteorological
data from entire country and the neighbouring areas, all modes
of communication were utilized.
(b) Regional Telecommunication Hub, New Delhi
maintains 13 point to point Global Telecommunication System
(GTS) links. In addition, two more circuits New Delhi-Melbourne
and New Delhi-Muscat (Oman) are operating via the Internet.
(c) India Meteorological Department has started
broadcasting of weather data and processed products w.e.f.
1st July 2003 using World Space ASIA-STAR Satellite.
The foot-print of this satellite covers the entire South-East
Asia and data can be received through an inexpensive receiver.
(d) IMDs website (http://www.imd.gov.in/)
contains dynamically updated information on All India Weather
Forecast, Special Monsoon Report, METSAT Satellite Cloud Picture,
Special Weather Warnings, Tropical Cyclone Information, Earthquake
Reports etc. More than five lakh hits were recorded on this
(e) An Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS)
popularly known as Weather on Phone can be conveniently
accessed by dialing 1717 and weather information
for 37 cities is available on this system. The information
is broadcast in regional languages in addition to Hindi and
Basic Research Projects/Ongoing Research
Long Range Forecast
In 2004, IMD used the statistical models introduced
in 2003 to prepare the long range forecasts of southwest monsoon
rainfall over India. In addition, an experimental forecast
for SW monsoon rainfall based on dynamical model was also
A Governing Body has been set up to guide and
recommend national priorities for seismic microzonation, hazard
mapping and national capacity building measures etc. to meet
the objectives of Earthquake Risk Evaluation Centre (EREC).
EREC actively participated in a DST sponsored pilot project
on seismic microzonation of Jabalpur which was completed.
Air Pollution Monitoring
(a) Environmental appraisal was undertaken of
a number of industrial and power projects and mining activities
of the Ministry of Environment and Forest.
(b) Regular Monitoring of meteorological parameters is also
being carried out at the Meteorological Observatory, Taj Mahal,
Turbidity values for all ten GAW stations, upto
year 2003 were computed. Multi-channel Sunphotometers having
5 channels have been installed at five GAW stations viz. (i)
Pune; (ii) Kodaikanal; iii) Nagpur; iv) Allahabad; and v)
Climate Related Environment Monitoring (CREM),
a programme of Department of Science & Technology is being
implemented by IMD at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture
& Technology, Ranichauri, Tehri Garwal (Uttranchal) for
monitoring of Green House Gases (GHGs) and at Delhi for aerosols
as a Pilot project for one year.
Antarctic Scientific Programme
IMD team members of 22nd Indian Scientific Expedition
to Antarctica returned to India on 4th April 2004 after successful
completion of the meteorological work at Maitri in Antarctica.
IMD team (Two Scientists) for 24th Indian Antarctic Expedition
was selected and provided training at different offices at
Pune and New Delhi. The 24th Indian Antarctic Expedition was
launched from Cape Town (South Africa) on 12th December 2004
for Maitri, Antarctica.
Ocean Research Cruise
a. IMD participated in 3 research cruises of
ORV Sagar Kanya during January 2004, January March
2004 and March April 2004 under Pilot Expedition to
Southern Ocean. IMD team on board ORV Sagar Kanya took surface
weather observations and helped the team from I.I.Sc., Bangalore
in taking radiosonde observations. b. IMD continued to maintain
Voluntary Observing Fleet, through six Port Meteorological
Offices viz: Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Kochi, Goa and
Mumbai comprising ships of Merchant Navy, Indian Navy and
IMD Grant-in-Aid Programme
India Meteorological Department has allocated
Rs. 46.94 lakh towards research grants to research institutes/Universities/Societies
for encouraging research work in the field of Meteorology
and Atmospheric Sciences. Research Projects at Jadavpur University
and Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), IIT Delhi were
funded under this programme.
Meteorological Data Supply
Meteorological observations recorded by the
observatories all over India are scrutinized, processed and
archived by National Data Centre (NDC), Pune and supplied
to various agencies for various purposes. NDC at Pune supplies
various types of meteorological data demanded by the users
within and outside the country.
(a) Manufacture of instruments for surface meteorological
observation is undertaken at Pune.
(b) Manufacture of upper air observation instrument known
as radio-sonde is undertaken at
These instruments, apart from internal use, are supplied to
Navy, Department of Space and Meteorological Service of Sri
Projects undertaken in the area of socio-economic development
a) Final tests of new LNBCS ware conducted and
recommended commissioning of TDMA software for MSS acknowledgement
transmitters of Digital CWDS during March.
b) Digital CWDS uplink equipment at RMC, Chennai and 105 sets
of receiving units at field stations in Coastal Andhra Pradesh
have been installed.
Agricultural Forecast and Advisories
(a) IMD continued its support to National Centre
for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), New Delhi for
development of its agro-meteorological advisory services in
(b) Based on empirical statistical models, pre-harvest monthly
crop production forecast for kharif rice for 15 states and
total rice production for the country as a whole from August-December
were prepared and supplied to user agencies.
(c) Special forecast of rainfall and upper wind and also locust
sighting observations were taken in Rajasthan and adjoining
areas and supplied to users.
(d) Agrimet Division continued to prepare and issue Agromet
Advisory Services (AAS) bulletins weekly/biweekly in connection
with State Agricultural Experts and various specialists for
the benefit of farmers at 20 Agromet Centres in the country.
(a) Meteorological Services for aviation were
continued for National and International flights for safe
and efficient operations. These services were provided through
a network of Meteorological Offices located at the other airports
in the country.
(b) State-of-the art instruments for meteorological observations,
such as Dual Base Line Transmissometer, Laser Ceilometer and
Digital Distance Indicating Wind equipment, have been installed
at some of the Airports.
The Phase-I of World Bank Hydrology Project
for enhancing the physical infrastructure of hydrometeorological
activities in which IMD is participating as one of the central
agency, was completed. The proposal for Hydrology Project
Phase-II has been submitted to World Bank and Ministry of
Flood Meteorological Support
Ten Flood Meteorological Offices located in
flood prone areas, continued to provide support to the
Central Flood Forecasting Divisions of Central Water Commission
The collaborative programme between India and China was initiated
on information sharing on Natural Disasters of common rivers.
(a) A CLASS (iii) Aeronautical Meteorological
Office started functioning at Hubli airport.
(b) Part time observatories in new district of Chamaraganagar,
Davangere and Haveri and old part time observatories (PTO)
at Tumkur was relocated to Chikkanahalli in Karnataka and
(a) The Central Training Institute of IMD at
Pune is designated as WMO Regional Meteorological Training
Centre in different disciplines.
(b) Training to departmental/extra-departmental personnel
(Navy, Air Force etc.) in operation and maintenance of airport
and surface meteorological instruments was imparted.
State of the art radiotheodolite replaced the
existing 18 pilot balloon stations for upper air observations.
IMD publishes a quarterly research journal MAUSAM.
In order to encourage quality research, a Biennial MAUSAM
award was instituted for the best scientific research paper
published in Hindi and English. A special issue on ARMEX
is being published as a January 2005 issue of MAUSAM.
A research project, Climate Change in
the Asian Summar Monsoon Region under the programme
Regional Aspect of Global Climate Change, has
been undertaken in the Monsoon Activity Centre, which functions
at New Delhi under WMOs Monsoon Climatology Programme.
Visits of foreign delegations
(i) 8 Members Chinese delegation led by Dr.
Qin Dahe, Administrator, China Meteorological Administration,
and P.R. of China with WMO visited IMD, New Delhi under Indo-China
cooperation in Meteorology for the 3rd Joint Working Group
Meeting from 5-7 November, 2004. Nine scientific activities/areas
of cooperation were identified for joint studies between the
(ii) 4 Members Kenyan delegation led by Dr. Joseph R. Mukabana,
Director, Kenya Meteorological Department and P.R. of Kenya
with WMO, visited IMD, New Delhi from 16-19 November, 2004
for familiarization with the operations of India Meteorological
Services and to have access to Indian Meteorological Satellite
Data, training for their meteorological personnel and sharing
experience on Automatic Weather Observing System (AWOS) at
Ports and field stations.
International meeting hosted by IMD
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Regional
Workshop for South and Southwest Asia was organized by India
Meteorological Department in New Delhi during 11-13 October
2004. The workshop was attended by 50 participants including
heads of National Meteorological Services and National Climate
Change Coordinators from 17 countries in the region, GCOS
Secretariat, UNDP officials and experts. It focused on regional
deficiencies and needs in atmospheric, oceanographic and terrestrial
observing system for climate and developing a strategy for
overcoming these deficiencies.
National Atlas &
Thematic Mapping Organization
The NATMO is premier organization in the field
of preparation of thematic maps established with the following
- Compilation of the National Atlas of India in English
- Preparation of National Atlas Maps in regional languages;
- Preparation of thematic maps based on research studies
on environmental and associated aspects and their impact
on social and economic development;
- Installation of Automated Mapping System for increasing
efficiency in mapping; and
- Geographical/Cartographical research & training.
Achievement during 2004-2005
|Name of the Programme
||No. of Atlases produced
|1. Revision of National Atlas
|2. District Planning Map Series
|3. State Atlas of Uttar Pradesh
|4. State Atlas of Bihar
|5. State Atlas of Madhya Pradesh
|6. Cultural & Heritage Atlas
|7. Historical Atlas of India
|8. School Atlas for Visually Impaired
The organization opened stalls with sales provision
on NATMO Maps/Atlases in 29 exhibitions and Book Fairs at
several places in the country.
20 scientific papers have been presented by
NATMO Officers and members of the staff at different seminars
held in different parts of the country.
NATMO DMS Building Complex
It is a fully automated Digital Mapping Section
of NATMO, equipped with modern state-ofart technologies related
to GIS & GPS & RS System. It is meant for specific
value-added digital output, training & research, etc.
a)During the period from April to March, the
Organization has generated a revenue of Rs.9, 57,687/- (Rupees
nine lakh fifty seven thousand six hundred & eighty seven)
only through selling of various maps, atlases, monographs,
b) NATMO has earned Rs.2, 33,000 (Rupees two lakh thirty-three
thousand) only as Course Fee for different Training Courses
conducted during this period.
c) Revenue (Civil Deposits) generated through Extra-Departmental
- Project between NATMO and Department of Panchayat &
Rural Development, Govt. of West Bengal, for compilation
and printing of entire Block Maps of West Bengal - Rs.85.25
lakh [Rs.25.00 lakh (1997-98) & Rs.60.25 lakh (1999-2000)]
- Project between NATMO & IIT, Mumbai for preparation
of Resource Profile for Bankura & Kolar Districts -
Rs.12.00 lakh [Rs.5.00 lakh (1996-97) & Rs.7.00 lakh
- Project between NATMO and Department of Forest, Government
of West Bengal for Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary, for Scanning,
Digitization and Creation of GIS base - Rs.1.70 lakh [Rs.1.00
lakh (1999-2000) & Rs.0.7 lakh (2000-2001)]
- Scanning of Forest Maps of West Bengal - A joint venture
between NATMO & Forest Department, Govt. of West Bengal
- Rs.0.5 lakh (1999-2000)
- Rs.47, 075/- earned as revenue by the Digital Mapping
Division, by way of Extra- Departmental Scanning, Plotting
- Rs.31, 25,000/- earned as revenue from Government of West
Bengal, towards making of Prathamik Machitrabali.
- Rs.1,50,000/- earned from the Department of Science &
Technology, Govt. of Sikkim, by way of mapping Natural Resources
Atlas of Sikkim.
National Centre for
Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)
Performance Evaluation of the Forecast
Since inception, NCMRWF has been working on continuous development
of Numerical Weather Prediction Models and is
providing meteorological forecasts for agro-advisory purposes
and also for other special situations. One of the major activities
of NCMRWF is the performance evaluation of the Global Data
Assimilation-Forecast System (GDAFS) during successive summer
monsoon seasons. This task is pursued thoroughly as the successful
prediction of various facets of the summer monsoon is the
most challenging task for any forecasting system which is
highly sensitive to various factors viz. model resolution,
availability of good quality initial observational data; variability
of various regional/global scale surface boundary fields etc.
Shifting of Office
The activities of the year 2004-2005 started with the major
task of shifting the office and the infrastructure from Mausam
Bhawan to our own campus at Noida. The primary objective of
rendering regular services to agriculture sector had been
the onus of shifting operations. The computing systems had
been shifted in phased manner such that at least one system
would be available round the clock for operational activities.
- An upgraded version 3.6 of mesoscale model MM5 has been
tested offline and 2 new domains at 10 km resolution have
been configured over the central Himalayas and Gangetic
West Bengal to cater the needs of Mt. Everest expedition
and national STORM project.
- Extended Range Prediction (ERP) of rainfall for Indian
summer monsoon months June, July, August, September and
October had been carried out, in collaboration with Space
Application Centre, by introducing new parameters and higher
number of data samples.
- The forecast length of meso-scale model ETA was extended
to 4 days to facilitate performance oriented exercises vis-à-vis
global models T80, T170 and meso-scale model MM5.
- The physics of land surface processes in global T80 model
had been validated by implementing variable bucket capacity
scheme utilizing satellite derived static land surface data
fields from GEWEX ISLSCP-II initiative.
- Experiments were carried out to see the impact of SASE
meso-scale network data over Himalayas. The impact on rainfall
forecasts associated with a western disturbance had been
studied using MM5 3D-VAR Data Assimilation Forecast System.
- Meso-scale Eta model at 10 km resolution was installed
and tested on a newly acquired PC with 2.8 GHz clock-speed
in Linux environment to facilitate input with better lead
time to Wave Watch Model to forecast ocean state wind.
- The 3DVAR assimilation system was successfully installed
and tested to enable provision of better initial conditions
for operational MM5/WRF model.
- A new version of wave model (WAVEWATCH III version 2.22)
that enables ocean state
forecast for global oceans was installed on linux PC and
- A review of the representation of orography in General
Circulation Models was conducted focusing on the optimal
representation of global spectral orography and for the
Indian summer monsoon simulation. Sensitivity studies were
carried out using T80L18 GCM to study the impact of optimal
orography on the medium range forecasts of Indian summer
monsoon and the cyclonic system tracks.
- The fifth and final scheme of the first order local closure
planetary boundary layer was implemented in the FSU model
of Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA. This work
was carried out by NCMRWF scientist under DST/NSF Project
on Planetary Boundary Layer Formulation for Improving
Monsoon Forecasts. The experience gained would eventually
be used in developing the unified boundary layer for NCMRWF
The scientists of NCMRWF contributed towards promotion of
science in India by guiding a number of M. Sc., M. Tech. and
M.C.A. students in the fields of meteorology, agricultural
sciences and computer sciences.
A national workshop on Seasonal climate prediction
for sustainable agriculture was jointly organised by
ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad and NCMRWF at Hyderabad
during 19-20 November 2004. This workshop was planned as a
component of ongoing NCMRWFANGRAU collaborative research project
entitled Application of SCF for sustainable agriculture
in Telangana sub division of AP.
- The Web Based Data Service Solution would
be introduced soon to cater to the needs of a number of
national and international organizations and universities
desirous of availing NCMRWF analysis and forecast products
for various scientific activities. A data archival and retrieval
system had been designed for automation of data supply facility
that is available online round the clock. The envisaged
solution solves the problem of manual intervention and delay
in data services.
- The world scientific community had been significantly
concerned about atmospheric chemical transport all over
the world. NCMRWF presented a talk on the Model of Atmospheric
Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) of Max-Planck Institute
for Chemistry (MPIC) simulations using NCMRWF analysis at
ADCOS brainstorming meeting held at ISRO headquarters, Bangalore.
Further investigations and possible collaboration with ISRO
- A collaborative project with BARC, Mumbai was initiated
to run dispersion models to assess the likely conditions
of any leakage from BARC power plants. NCMRWF would provide
real-time meteorological input to help BARC in running dispersion
models with unit release of pollutants.
Issue of weather forecast to Agromet Advisory
Service (AAS) Units
Daily forecasts with a temporal range of 4 days were issued
for cloud cover, maximum and minimum temperatures, wind speed
and direction and rainfall to 82 Agromet Advisory Units twice
a week. In addition, weekly cumulative rainfall forecast were
also supplied to crop weather watch groups.
Weekly Weather Forecasts
All India weekly weather forecasts were supplied to crop
weather watch group, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation,
Ministry of Agriculture on every Monday.
An extensive agro-advisory covering all the agrometeorological
zones of the country was prepared for use of all the functional
Agrometeorological Forecasting Units (AMFU) and all other
user agencies. The agro-advisory explicitly included regional
weather forecast in relation to all possible cropping patterns
over different regions of the country.
Daily Weather Forecast
Daily weather forecast products from operational T80 global
data assimilation and forecast system were provided to IMD,
Indian Air Force, Directorate of Oceanography and Meteorology,
Indian Navy, Indian Army and Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment
of DRDO. Besides, daily forecast for strategic locations were
also issued to Indian Army.
Weather Scenario for KISAN channel
The KISAN channel launched by Ministry of Agriculture and
coordinated by IGNOU were provided with weeklong scenario
on current weather situation, agro-climatic zone specific
synoptic weather bulletin and all India consolidated agro-advisory.
These weeklong forecasts were issued 4 times a week starting
from Monday through Thursday.
Weather Forecast for Special Events
NCMRWF received requests for issue of weather forecast for
special events of scientific and national importance. Weather
forecasts were also issued for events such as Mountain Expeditions,
Global Cruise, National Events and events like Satellite Launching;
Hot-Air Balloon Expedition; and Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiments
- One visiting scientist from BARC was trained for implementation
and running of meso-scale MM5 model and post-processing
the output to suit the needs of their chemical transport
- A 2-week course for familiarization of numerical weather
prediction with hands-on practicals on the use of meso-scale
models was organized for the benefit of Indian Navy and
Indian Air Force officers.
- One squadran leader from Indian Air Force was trained
on meso-scale MM5 model.
- A 3 days training on Parallel Architecture
was imparted to the scientists of NCMRWF.
A proposal was given for Establishment of BIMST-EC
Centre for Weather & Climate to cater to the needs
of Bangladesh, Myanmar, Srilanka and Thailand in the field
A book on Monsoon-2004: Progress, Performance, Prediction
& Agometeorological Advisories prepared by scientists
of NCMRWF was released by the Honble Minister of State
for Science & Technology, Shri Kapil Sibal on 23rd October,
Survey of India
Survey of India, the National Mapping agency of Government of
India, has the unique responsibility to ensure that countrys
domain is explored and mapped suitably to provide vast variety
of maps for expeditious and integrated development, security
and prosperity of the country now and for generations to come.
Besides, it has also been carrying out the normal work of Geodetic,
Geophysical and development surveys, Geomagnetic, gravity, dam
deformation and crustal movement studies, collection, analysis
and dissemination of tidal data etc. Some of the significant
activities during the year are as under:
Technology Development Projects
i) National Spatial Data Infrastructure
NSDI has been established as a part of Survey of India under
Ministry of Science & Technology to establish and promote
an infrastructure at the National level for the information
on availability of organised spatial and non-spatial data
and multi-level information networking to contribute to local,
national and global needs of sustained economic growth, environmental
quality and stability with social progress.
ii) The following activities to bring out new series of topographical
maps based on WGS-84 datum are going on in full swing:
a) Determination of transformation parameters between Everest
Spheroid Datum and WGS-84 Datum using GPS technology.
b) Digitisation of existing topographical maps on 1:50,000
iii) ALTM Technology for the preparation of Digital Elevation
models has been introduced in Survey of India.
iv) The following projects based on latest available technologies
have been taken up by Survey of India:
a) GIS for Hyderabad city.
b) All India Travel GIS.
c) Updation of digital topographical Database using satellite
d) Creation of Administrative Boundary Database.
e) Project on Bamboo Mapping
f) Interlinking of Rivers.
g) Replacement of Analogue Photographs with Digital Photographs.
Basic Research Projects
i) Different methods and techniques are being developed for
mapping using latest available instruments and technologies
such as Total Stations, GPS etc.
ii) Use of various Image processing softwares is being explored
in Survey of India for digitisation of maps.
iii) Attempts are in progress for the creation of GIS and
LIS using Remote sensing, GPS and existing techniques of Surveying.
Technologies Transferred for Commercialisation
i) Updation of Topographical maps using satellite imageries
of various resolutions and assessing their accuracies.
ii) Geo-referencing the satellite imageries of various resolutions.
Technology Demonstration Projects Undertaken
in the Area of Socio-economic Development
(i) Topographical activities
|(a) Control Work
||14,862 sq km
||6,190 sq km
||1,810 lin km
||3,675 lin km
|Photogrammetric surveys on various
||15,300 sq km
|Ground surveys on various scales
||60,276 sq km
||620 lin km
|Verification surveys for IAF
||2,08,600 sq km
|(c) Fair Mapping
||8,98,800 sq km
|Printing of various types of maps
|ii) Digitisation and
creation of Digital Cartographic databases
|Departmental on various scales
|Extra Departmental on various scales
|iii) Geodetic and
a) Geodetic surveys
for monitoring of constructional progress of various developmental
projects are in progress.
b) During the year,
Survey of India is committed to carry out the following tasks
as departmental commitment.
||2355 lin km
||180 lin km
|Gravity on Bench Marks
|Geomagnetic repeat observations
|Installation of Tide Gauges
i) Use of satellite imageries of various resolutions
is being explored in Survey of India for the updation of existing
Topographical Maps and creation of various large scale maps.
ii) Survey of India continued participating in Indian Antarctic
iii) Papers on various aspects of Surveying and the related
technologies were presented at different national and international
Any other information of interest
i) Boundaries Demarcation
Demarcation, Relocation and Construction of Boundary Pillars
and preparation of Strip-Maps of various international and
inter-state boundaries remained in progress during the year.
ii) Topographical Surveys
a) Surveys on various large scales are being taken up on selective
basis according to the priorities indicated by the Central/
State Governments and other user communities.
b) Most of the maps on the primary scale of 1:50K covering
the entire country have been printed. Revision surveys for
updating these maps are in progress.
c) Maps on 1:250 K scales covering the entire country have
been published and updation of these maps is in progress.
d) Compilation of various Geographical maps, State maps, Guide
maps etc. are being continuously carried out.
iii) Digital Cartography
Digitization of 335 maps out of 394 maps on 1:250,000; 4,968
out of 5,108 on 1:50,000 scale and 1091 maps out of 19,540
maps on 1:25,000 scale has been completed.
iv) Printing and Publication
Other than the regular publication of the topographical maps
on various scales and geographical maps, guide maps, district
planning maps etc. the following publications were also brought
a) Quarterly News Letter of Survey of
India is the most important introduction in SOI publications.
b) Magnetic Bulletin of Sabhawala Magnetic Observatory.
c) Indian Tide Tables 2003 (Tide Table containing tidal
prediction of 76 ports).
v) Human Resource Development and Training
Various courses connected with surveying and mapping, digital
cartography and GPS Technology were continued at the Survey
Training Institute, Hyderabad for Officers/ trainees from
the department, other Governmental/Non Governmental organisations
and foreign nationals.
vi) Survey of India has been restructured
w.e.f. 01.01.2004 to meet the Spatial Data Demands of Users
in different states and those of the NSDI. Now, Survey of
India has its offices in almost all of the State Capitals
of India named as Geo-spatial Data Centres. The Headquarters
of Survey of India remains at Dehradun.