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Annual Report 2004-2005

Meteorology Mapping and Survey

India Meteorological Department

Advanced Technology Support - Doppler Weather Radar

  • S-Band Doppler Weather Radar Meteor 1500S imported from M/S Gematronik, Germany has been installed, commissioned and operationalized at Cyclone Detection Radar, Machilipatnam (Andhra Pradesh) with effect from 8th December 2004.
  • One more S-Band Doppler Weather Radar imported from M/S Gematronik, Germany received at Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh). This will replace the existing old and obsolete, conventional S-Band radar at Cyclone Detection Radar, Visakhapatnam shortly.
  • A computer system comprising of an Altix-350 (Dual Itanium Processor), Xeon based Server, Sony tape backup device and A0 plotter was commissioned in September 2004 in NHAC (Computer) for data processing, chart plotting & running regional & meso-scale models.

Wind Measurement

  • As part of modernization of airport meteorological instruments, newly designed Digital Distant indicating Wind Equipment for monitoring wind has been installed at five airports in India.
  • A Wind Profiler/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (WP/RASS) for taking vertical wind and temperature observations is also installed in the AWS campus. In addition to the daily observations, special observations for higher and lower heights are also taken during foggy conditions.

Weather Observation System

(a) 3.8 meter dish antenna for Automatic Weather Station data receiving ground station were installed at various centres and also at AWS Laboratories Campus, Pashan, Pune.

(b) A new state of the art system for monitoring height of base of low clouds viz Laser Ceilometers have been installed at 8 airports.

(c) A data logger system for radiation measurement has been installed at CAg. MO for field trial.

(d) 64 KBPS Circuit between RTH New Delhi and M.O.Chennai was commissioned.

(e) Automatic Self Briefing System (ASBS) for Meteorology Product was established on trial basis successfully at Chennai Airport on 4th November 2004.

Upper Air

(a) Environmental test chamber for calibrating radiosonde pressure sensors manufactured in IMD has been installed in June 2004.

(b) Hand held data logger with software for computing pilot balloon ascents has been developed for achieving automation and is being installed in IMD Pilot Balloon network. These will be installed at three stations initially and later at rest of the stations.

(c) High technology state of the art radio-theodolite (IMS-1500) installed at Guwahati & Kolkata.

(d) Automatic computing system for radiosonde ascent has been installed at various RS/RW Stations.

Mountain Meteorology

Project “PARVAT”

Mountain Meteorology Project, now renamed as Project “PARVAT”, was a joint project for 5 years (1999-2004) being executed by DRDO (SASE), MO (Army), Air Force and DST (IMD & NCMRWF). This project has now been further extended for execution till 2005. The project is framed to improve Weather and Avalanche Forecasting over Western Himalayas.

Earthquake Monitoring

(a) An earthquake of great magnitude occurred on 26th December 2004 at 06 Hrs. 29 Minutes IST with its epicenter at 3.3° N Latitude and 96.1° E Longitude, off West Coast of Sumatra Island region. The earthquake has been felt widely in parts of South India. The earthquake has given rise to Tsunamis, which hit the Andaman & Nicobar Islands and East coast of India. Tsunamis are responsible for the damage observed in the East coast of India. The great Sumatra earthquake was followed by several after-shocks of moderate magnitude. The after-shock activity is still continuing and is being monitored. Till 10.00 hrs. IST of 3rd January 2005, ninety-three after-shocks (M>=5.0) have been recorded.

(b) EREC actively participated in a DST sponsored pilot project on seismic microzonation of Jabalpur which has been completed. EREC is also actively participating in DST sponsored seismic microzonation studies of Guwahati and Delhi.

(c) Micro-earthquake surveys were carried out to monitor sporadic earthquake activity reported in parts of Jind (Haryana). A local seismic network of five stations has also been established to strengthen the VSAT based seismic telemetry network in and around Delhi to monitor the reported tremor activity in April 2004 in Delhi.

Satellite Applications

(a) Satellite applications being carried out in various fields are as follows:

- INSAT Meteorological Data Processing System (IMDPS);
- High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) Data Receiving System;
- Primary Data Utilization Station (PDUS);
- Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD); and
- Data Collection Platforms (DCP).

Digital Cyclone Warning Dissemination System (DCWDS) uplink facility at RMC Chennai and the equipment at 100 DCWDS field stations in Andhra Pradesh installed under World Bank Project has been taken over by IMD.

(b) Meteorological support was provided for successful launching of Educational Satellite (EDUSAT) at Sriharikota.

Modernized Telecommunication Facilities

(a) India Meteorological Department has a very extensive telecommunication network with a central hub at its National Meteorological Centre (NMTC), New Delhi connected with five Regional Message Switching Centres at Delhi (Airport), Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Guwahati. For collection of meteorological data from entire country and the neighbouring areas, all modes of communication were utilized.

(b) Regional Telecommunication Hub, New Delhi maintains 13 point to point Global Telecommunication System (GTS) links. In addition, two more circuits New Delhi-Melbourne and New Delhi-Muscat (Oman) are operating via the Internet.

(c) India Meteorological Department has started broadcasting of weather data and processed products w.e.f. 1st July 2003 using World Space “ASIA-STAR” Satellite. The foot-print of this satellite covers the entire South-East Asia and data can be received through an inexpensive receiver.

(d) IMD’s website ( contains dynamically updated information on All India Weather Forecast, Special Monsoon Report, METSAT Satellite Cloud Picture, Special Weather Warnings, Tropical Cyclone Information, Earthquake Reports etc. More than five lakh hits were recorded on this website.

(e) An Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS) popularly known as ‘Weather on Phone’ can be conveniently accessed by dialing ‘1717’ and weather information for 37 cities is available on this system. The information is broadcast in regional languages in addition to Hindi and English.

Basic Research Projects/Ongoing Research Work

Long Range Forecast

In 2004, IMD used the statistical models introduced in 2003 to prepare the long range forecasts of southwest monsoon rainfall over India. In addition, an experimental forecast for SW monsoon rainfall based on dynamical model was also prepared.

Seismic Monitoring

A Governing Body has been set up to guide and recommend national priorities for seismic microzonation, hazard mapping and national capacity building measures etc. to meet the objectives of Earthquake Risk Evaluation Centre (EREC). EREC actively participated in a DST sponsored pilot project on seismic microzonation of Jabalpur which was completed.

Air Pollution Monitoring

(a) Environmental appraisal was undertaken of a number of industrial and power projects and mining activities of the Ministry of Environment and Forest.

(b) Regular Monitoring of meteorological parameters is also being carried out at the Meteorological Observatory, Taj Mahal, Agra (U.P).

Atmospheric Turbidity

Turbidity values for all ten GAW stations, upto year 2003 were computed. Multi-channel Sunphotometers having 5 channels have been installed at five GAW stations viz. (i) Pune; (ii) Kodaikanal; iii) Nagpur; iv) Allahabad; and v) Jodhpur.

CREM Project

Climate Related Environment Monitoring (CREM), a programme of Department of Science & Technology is being implemented by IMD at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Ranichauri, Tehri Garwal (Uttranchal) for monitoring of Green House Gases (GHGs) and at Delhi for aerosols as a Pilot project for one year.

Antarctic Scientific Programme

IMD team members of 22nd Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica returned to India on 4th April 2004 after successful completion of the meteorological work at Maitri in Antarctica. IMD team (Two Scientists) for 24th Indian Antarctic Expedition was selected and provided training at different offices at Pune and New Delhi. The 24th Indian Antarctic Expedition was launched from Cape Town (South Africa) on 12th December 2004 for Maitri, Antarctica.

Ocean Research Cruise

a. IMD participated in 3 research cruises of ORV Sagar Kanya during January 2004, January – March 2004 and March – April 2004 under Pilot Expedition to Southern Ocean. IMD team on board ORV Sagar Kanya took surface weather observations and helped the team from I.I.Sc., Bangalore in taking radiosonde observations. b. IMD continued to maintain Voluntary Observing Fleet, through six Port Meteorological Offices viz: Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Kochi, Goa and Mumbai comprising ships of Merchant Navy, Indian Navy and foreign Navy.

IMD Grant-in-Aid Programme

India Meteorological Department has allocated Rs. 46.94 lakh towards research grants to research institutes/Universities/Societies for encouraging research work in the field of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences. Research Projects at Jadavpur University and Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), IIT Delhi were funded under this programme.

Technologies Transferred/Commercialized

Meteorological Data Supply

Meteorological observations recorded by the observatories all over India are scrutinized, processed and archived by National Data Centre (NDC), Pune and supplied to various agencies for various purposes. NDC at Pune supplies various types of meteorological data demanded by the users within and outside the country.

Observational Support

(a) Manufacture of instruments for surface meteorological observation is undertaken at Pune.

(b) Manufacture of upper air observation instrument known as ‘radio-sonde’ is undertaken at
New Delhi.

These instruments, apart from internal use, are supplied to Navy, Department of Space and Meteorological Service of Sri Lanka.

Technology Demonstration Projects undertaken in the area of socio-economic development

Cyclone Warning

a) Final tests of new LNBCS ware conducted and recommended commissioning of TDMA software for MSS acknowledgement transmitters of Digital CWDS during March.

b) Digital CWDS uplink equipment at RMC, Chennai and 105 sets of receiving units at field stations in Coastal Andhra Pradesh have been installed.

Agricultural Forecast and Advisories

(a) IMD continued its support to National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), New Delhi for development of its agro-meteorological advisory services in the country.

(b) Based on empirical statistical models, pre-harvest monthly crop production forecast for kharif rice for 15 states and total rice production for the country as a whole from August-December were prepared and supplied to user agencies.

(c) Special forecast of rainfall and upper wind and also locust sighting observations were taken in Rajasthan and adjoining areas and supplied to users.

(d) Agrimet Division continued to prepare and issue Agromet Advisory Services (AAS) bulletins weekly/biweekly in connection with State Agricultural Experts and various specialists for the benefit of farmers at 20 Agromet Centres in the country.

Aviation Services

(a) Meteorological Services for aviation were continued for National and International flights for safe and efficient operations. These services were provided through a network of Meteorological Offices located at the other airports in the country.

(b) State-of-the art instruments for meteorological observations, such as Dual Base Line Transmissometer, Laser Ceilometer and Digital Distance Indicating Wind equipment, have been installed at some of the Airports.

Hydrology Project

The Phase-I of World Bank Hydrology Project for enhancing the physical infrastructure of hydrometeorological activities in which IMD is participating as one of the central agency, was completed. The proposal for Hydrology Project Phase-II has been submitted to World Bank and Ministry of Water Resources.

Flood Meteorological Support

Ten Flood Meteorological Offices located in flood –prone areas, continued to provide support to the Central Flood Forecasting Divisions of Central Water Commission (CWC).

The collaborative programme between India and China was initiated on information sharing on Natural Disasters of common rivers.

Other Initiatives

Infrastructure Development

(a) A CLASS (iii) Aeronautical Meteorological Office started functioning at Hubli airport.

(b) Part time observatories in new district of Chamaraganagar, Davangere and Haveri and old part time observatories (PTO) at Tumkur was relocated to Chikkanahalli in Karnataka and started functioning.

Training Programme

(a) The Central Training Institute of IMD at Pune is designated as WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centre in different disciplines.

(b) Training to departmental/extra-departmental personnel (Navy, Air Force etc.) in operation and maintenance of airport and surface meteorological instruments was imparted.


State of the art radiotheodolite replaced the existing 18 pilot balloon stations for upper air observations.

Research Publication

IMD publishes a quarterly research journal “MAUSAM”. In order to encourage quality research, a Biennial ‘MAUSAM” award was instituted for the best scientific research paper published in Hindi and English. A special issue on “ARMEX” is being published as a January 2005 issue of “MAUSAM”.

Climate Change

A research project, “Climate Change in the Asian Summar Monsoon Region” under the programme “Regional Aspect of Global Climate Change”, has been undertaken in the Monsoon Activity Centre, which functions at New Delhi under WMO’s Monsoon Climatology Programme.

Visits of foreign delegations

(i) 8 Members Chinese delegation led by Dr. Qin Dahe, Administrator, China Meteorological Administration, and P.R. of China with WMO visited IMD, New Delhi under Indo-China cooperation in Meteorology for the 3rd Joint Working Group Meeting from 5-7 November, 2004. Nine scientific activities/areas of cooperation were identified for joint studies between the two sides.

(ii) 4 Members Kenyan delegation led by Dr. Joseph R. Mukabana, Director, Kenya Meteorological Department and P.R. of Kenya with WMO, visited IMD, New Delhi from 16-19 November, 2004 for familiarization with the operations of India Meteorological Services and to have access to Indian Meteorological Satellite Data, training for their meteorological personnel and sharing experience on Automatic Weather Observing System (AWOS) at Ports and field stations.

International meeting hosted by IMD

Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Regional Workshop for South and Southwest Asia was organized by India Meteorological Department in New Delhi during 11-13 October 2004. The workshop was attended by 50 participants including heads of National Meteorological Services and National Climate Change Coordinators from 17 countries in the region, GCOS Secretariat, UNDP officials and experts. It focused on regional deficiencies and needs in atmospheric, oceanographic and terrestrial observing system for climate and developing a strategy for overcoming these deficiencies.

National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organization

The NATMO is premier organization in the field of preparation of thematic maps established with the following objectives:

  • Compilation of the National Atlas of India in English and Hindi;
  • Preparation of National Atlas Maps in regional languages;
  • Preparation of thematic maps based on research studies on environmental and associated aspects and their impact on social and economic development;
  • Installation of Automated Mapping System for increasing efficiency in mapping; and
  • Geographical/Cartographical research & training.

Achievement during 2004-2005

Name of the Programme No. of Atlases produced
1. Revision of National Atlas 11
2. District Planning Map Series 24
3. State Atlas of Uttar Pradesh 01
4. State Atlas of Bihar 02
5. State Atlas of Madhya Pradesh 02
6. Cultural & Heritage Atlas 01
7. Historical Atlas of India 02
8. School Atlas for Visually Impaired 12

Activities undertaken


The organization opened stalls with sales provision on NATMO Maps/Atlases in 29 exhibitions and Book Fairs at several places in the country.

Scientific Papers

20 scientific papers have been presented by NATMO Officers and members of the staff at different seminars held in different parts of the country.

NATMO DMS Building Complex

It is a fully automated Digital Mapping Section of NATMO, equipped with modern state-ofart technologies related to GIS & GPS & RS System. It is meant for specific value-added digital output, training & research, etc.

Revenue generated

a)During the period from April to March, the Organization has generated a revenue of Rs.9, 57,687/- (Rupees nine lakh fifty seven thousand six hundred & eighty seven) only through selling of various maps, atlases, monographs, etc.

b) NATMO has earned Rs.2, 33,000 (Rupees two lakh thirty-three thousand) only as Course Fee for different Training Courses conducted during this period.

c) Revenue (Civil Deposits) generated through Extra-Departmental Projects:

  • Project between NATMO and Department of Panchayat & Rural Development, Govt. of West Bengal, for compilation and printing of entire Block Maps of West Bengal - Rs.85.25 lakh [Rs.25.00 lakh (1997-98) & Rs.60.25 lakh (1999-2000)]
  • Project between NATMO & IIT, Mumbai for preparation of Resource Profile for Bankura & Kolar Districts - Rs.12.00 lakh [Rs.5.00 lakh (1996-97) & Rs.7.00 lakh (1998-99)]
  • Project between NATMO and Department of Forest, Government of West Bengal for Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary, for Scanning, Digitization and Creation of GIS base - Rs.1.70 lakh [Rs.1.00 lakh (1999-2000) & Rs.0.7 lakh (2000-2001)]
  • Scanning of Forest Maps of West Bengal - A joint venture between NATMO & Forest Department, Govt. of West Bengal - Rs.0.5 lakh (1999-2000)
  • Rs.47, 075/- earned as revenue by the Digital Mapping Division, by way of Extra- Departmental Scanning, Plotting jobs, etc.
  • Rs.31, 25,000/- earned as revenue from Government of West Bengal, towards making of Prathamik Machitrabali.
  • Rs.1,50,000/- earned from the Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of Sikkim, by way of mapping Natural Resources Atlas of Sikkim.
National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)

Performance Evaluation of the Forecast Model

Since inception, NCMRWF has been working on continuous development of ‘Numerical Weather Prediction Models’ and is providing meteorological forecasts for agro-advisory purposes and also for other special situations. One of the major activities of NCMRWF is the performance evaluation of the Global Data Assimilation-Forecast System (GDAFS) during successive summer monsoon seasons. This task is pursued thoroughly as the successful prediction of various facets of the summer monsoon is the most challenging task for any forecasting system which is highly sensitive to various factors viz. model resolution, availability of good quality initial observational data; variability of various regional/global scale surface boundary fields etc.

Shifting of Office

The activities of the year 2004-2005 started with the major task of shifting the office and the infrastructure from Mausam Bhawan to our own campus at Noida. The primary objective of rendering regular services to agriculture sector had been the onus of shifting operations. The computing systems had been shifted in phased manner such that at least one system would be available round the clock for operational activities.

Major Achievements

  • An upgraded version 3.6 of mesoscale model MM5 has been tested offline and 2 new domains at 10 km resolution have been configured over the central Himalayas and Gangetic West Bengal to cater the needs of Mt. Everest expedition and national STORM project.
  • Extended Range Prediction (ERP) of rainfall for Indian summer monsoon months June, July, August, September and October had been carried out, in collaboration with Space Application Centre, by introducing new parameters and higher number of data samples.
  • The forecast length of meso-scale model ETA was extended to 4 days to facilitate performance oriented exercises vis-à-vis global models T80, T170 and meso-scale model MM5.
  • The physics of land surface processes in global T80 model had been validated by implementing variable bucket capacity scheme utilizing satellite derived static land surface data fields from GEWEX ISLSCP-II initiative.
  • Experiments were carried out to see the impact of SASE meso-scale network data over Himalayas. The impact on rainfall forecasts associated with a western disturbance had been studied using MM5 3D-VAR Data Assimilation Forecast System.
  • Meso-scale Eta model at 10 km resolution was installed and tested on a newly acquired PC with 2.8 GHz clock-speed in Linux environment to facilitate input with better lead time to Wave Watch Model to forecast ocean state wind.
  • The 3DVAR assimilation system was successfully installed and tested to enable provision of better initial conditions for operational MM5/WRF model.
  • A new version of wave model (WAVEWATCH III version 2.22) that enables ocean state
    forecast for global oceans was installed on linux PC and successfully tested.
  • A review of the representation of orography in General Circulation Models was conducted focusing on the optimal representation of global spectral orography and for the Indian summer monsoon simulation. Sensitivity studies were carried out using T80L18 GCM to study the impact of optimal orography on the medium range forecasts of Indian summer monsoon and the cyclonic system tracks.
  • The fifth and final scheme of the first order local closure planetary boundary layer was implemented in the FSU model of Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA. This work was carried out by NCMRWF scientist under DST/NSF Project on “Planetary Boundary Layer Formulation for Improving Monsoon Forecasts”. The experience gained would eventually be used in developing the unified boundary layer for NCMRWF T80 model.

The scientists of NCMRWF contributed towards promotion of science in India by guiding a number of M. Sc., M. Tech. and M.C.A. students in the fields of meteorology, agricultural sciences and computer sciences.

Workshops Organized

A national workshop on ‘Seasonal climate prediction for sustainable agriculture’ was jointly organised by ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad and NCMRWF at Hyderabad during 19-20 November 2004. This workshop was planned as a component of ongoing NCMRWFANGRAU collaborative research project entitled ‘Application of SCF for sustainable agriculture in Telangana sub division of AP’.

New Initiatives

  • The “Web Based Data Service Solution” would be introduced soon to cater to the needs of a number of national and international organizations and universities desirous of availing NCMRWF analysis and forecast products for various scientific activities. A data archival and retrieval system had been designed for automation of data supply facility that is available online round the clock. The envisaged solution solves the problem of manual intervention and delay in data services.
  • The world scientific community had been significantly concerned about atmospheric chemical transport all over the world. NCMRWF presented a talk on the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) of Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry (MPIC) simulations using NCMRWF analysis at ADCOS brainstorming meeting held at ISRO headquarters, Bangalore. Further investigations and possible collaboration with ISRO are underway.
  • A collaborative project with BARC, Mumbai was initiated to run dispersion models to assess the likely conditions of any leakage from BARC power plants. NCMRWF would provide real-time meteorological input to help BARC in running dispersion models with unit release of pollutants.

Scientific Services

Issue of weather forecast to Agromet Advisory Service (AAS) Units

Daily forecasts with a temporal range of 4 days were issued for cloud cover, maximum and minimum temperatures, wind speed and direction and rainfall to 82 Agromet Advisory Units twice a week. In addition, weekly cumulative rainfall forecast were also supplied to crop weather watch groups.

Weekly Weather Forecasts

All India weekly weather forecasts were supplied to crop weather watch group, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture on every Monday.

Extensive Agro-advisory

An extensive agro-advisory covering all the agrometeorological zones of the country was prepared for use of all the functional Agrometeorological Forecasting Units (AMFU) and all other user agencies. The agro-advisory explicitly included regional weather forecast in relation to all possible cropping patterns over different regions of the country.

Daily Weather Forecast

Daily weather forecast products from operational T80 global data assimilation and forecast system were provided to IMD, Indian Air Force, Directorate of Oceanography and Meteorology, Indian Navy, Indian Army and Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment of DRDO. Besides, daily forecast for strategic locations were also issued to Indian Army.

Weather Scenario for KISAN channel

The KISAN channel launched by Ministry of Agriculture and coordinated by IGNOU were provided with weeklong scenario on current weather situation, agro-climatic zone specific synoptic weather bulletin and all India consolidated agro-advisory. These weeklong forecasts were issued 4 times a week starting from Monday through Thursday.

Weather Forecast for Special Events

NCMRWF received requests for issue of weather forecast for special events of scientific and national importance. Weather forecasts were also issued for events such as Mountain Expeditions, Global Cruise, National Events and events like Satellite Launching; Hot-Air Balloon Expedition; and Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiments etc.

Trainings Organised

  • One visiting scientist from BARC was trained for implementation and running of meso-scale MM5 model and post-processing the output to suit the needs of their chemical transport studies.
  • A 2-week course for familiarization of numerical weather prediction with hands-on practicals on the use of meso-scale models was organized for the benefit of Indian Navy and Indian Air Force officers.
  • One squadran leader from Indian Air Force was trained on meso-scale MM5 model.
  • A 3 days training on “Parallel Architecture” was imparted to the scientists of NCMRWF.


A proposal was given for “Establishment of BIMST-EC Centre for Weather & Climate” to cater to the needs of Bangladesh, Myanmar, Srilanka and Thailand in the field of meteorology.


A book on “Monsoon-2004: Progress, Performance, Prediction & Agometeorological Advisories” prepared by scientists of NCMRWF was released by the Hon’ble Minister of State for Science & Technology, Shri Kapil Sibal on 23rd October, 2004.
Survey of India

Survey of India, the National Mapping agency of Government of India, has the unique responsibility to ensure that country’s domain is explored and mapped suitably to provide vast variety of maps for expeditious and integrated development, security and prosperity of the country now and for generations to come. Besides, it has also been carrying out the normal work of Geodetic, Geophysical and development surveys, Geomagnetic, gravity, dam deformation and crustal movement studies, collection, analysis and dissemination of tidal data etc. Some of the significant activities during the year are as under:

Technology Development Projects

i) National Spatial Data Infrastructure NSDI has been established as a part of Survey of India under Ministry of Science & Technology to establish and promote an infrastructure at the National level for the information on availability of organised spatial and non-spatial data and multi-level information networking to contribute to local, national and global needs of sustained economic growth, environmental quality and stability with social progress.

ii) The following activities to bring out new series of topographical maps based on WGS-84 datum are going on in full swing:

a) Determination of transformation parameters between Everest Spheroid Datum and WGS-84 Datum using GPS technology.
b) Digitisation of existing topographical maps on 1:50,000 scale.

iii) ALTM Technology for the preparation of Digital Elevation models has been introduced in Survey of India.

iv) The following projects based on latest available technologies have been taken up by Survey of India:

a) GIS for Hyderabad city.
b) All India Travel GIS.
c) Updation of digital topographical Database using satellite data.
d) Creation of Administrative Boundary Database.
e) Project on Bamboo Mapping
f) Interlinking of Rivers.
g) Replacement of Analogue Photographs with Digital Photographs.

Basic Research Projects

i) Different methods and techniques are being developed for mapping using latest available instruments and technologies such as Total Stations, GPS etc.

ii) Use of various Image processing softwares is being explored in Survey of India for digitisation of maps.

iii) Attempts are in progress for the creation of GIS and LIS using Remote sensing, GPS and existing techniques of Surveying.

Technologies Transferred for Commercialisation

i) Updation of Topographical maps using satellite imageries of various resolutions and assessing their accuracies.

ii) Geo-referencing the satellite imageries of various resolutions.

Technology Demonstration Projects Undertaken in the Area of Socio-economic Development

(i) Topographical activities

(a) Control Work
Topo Triangulation 14,862 sq km
Aerial Triangulation 6,190 sq km
Traverse 1,810 lin km
Levelling 3,675 lin km
(b) Surveys
Photogrammetric surveys on various scales 15,300 sq km
Ground surveys on various scales 60,276 sq km
Boundary demarcation 620 lin km
Verification surveys for IAF 2,08,600 sq km
(c) Fair Mapping
Topographical 8,98,800 sq km
Digital Mapping 53 maps
(d) Printing:
Printing of various types of maps 1110 Maps
ii) Digitisation and creation of Digital Cartographic databases
Departmental on various scales 2,991 Maps
Extra Departmental on various scales 794 Maps
iii) Geodetic and Geophysical surveys

a) Geodetic surveys for monitoring of constructional progress of various developmental projects are in progress.

b) During the year, Survey of India is committed to carry out the following tasks as departmental commitment.

GPS observations 186 stations
Precision Levelling 2355 lin km
EDM Traverse 180 lin km
Gravity observations 500 stations
Gravity on Bench Marks 610 stations
Geomagnetic repeat observations 75 stations
Astro Azimuth 150 stations
Installation of Tide Gauges 5 ports

Research Highlights

i) Use of satellite imageries of various resolutions is being explored in Survey of India for the updation of existing Topographical Maps and creation of various large scale maps.

ii) Survey of India continued participating in Indian Antarctic Programme.

iii) Papers on various aspects of Surveying and the related technologies were presented at different national and international platforms.

Any other information of interest

i) Boundaries Demarcation

Demarcation, Relocation and Construction of Boundary Pillars and preparation of Strip-Maps of various international and inter-state boundaries remained in progress during the year.

ii) Topographical Surveys

a) Surveys on various large scales are being taken up on selective basis according to the priorities indicated by the Central/ State Governments and other user communities.

b) Most of the maps on the primary scale of 1:50K covering the entire country have been printed. Revision surveys for updating these maps are in progress.

c) Maps on 1:250 K scales covering the entire country have been published and updation of these maps is in progress.

d) Compilation of various Geographical maps, State maps, Guide maps etc. are being continuously carried out.

iii) Digital Cartography

Digitization of 335 maps out of 394 maps on 1:250,000; 4,968 out of 5,108 on 1:50,000 scale and 1091 maps out of 19,540 maps on 1:25,000 scale has been completed.

iv) Printing and Publication

Other than the regular publication of the topographical maps on various scales and geographical maps, guide maps, district planning maps etc. the following publications were also brought out:

a) Quarterly News Letter of Survey of India is the most important introduction in SOI publications.

b) Magnetic Bulletin of Sabhawala Magnetic Observatory.

c) Indian Tide Tables – 2003 (Tide Table containing tidal prediction of 76 ports).

v) Human Resource Development and Training

Various courses connected with surveying and mapping, digital cartography and GPS Technology were continued at the Survey Training Institute, Hyderabad for Officers/ trainees from the department, other Governmental/Non Governmental organisations and foreign nationals.

vi) Survey of India has been restructured w.e.f. 01.01.2004 to meet the Spatial Data Demands of Users in different states and those of the NSDI. Now, Survey of India has its offices in almost all of the State Capitals of India named as Geo-spatial Data Centres. The Headquarters of Survey of India remains at Dehradun.

Administrative Setup
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