Annual Report 2005-2006
S&T Manpower Development
Manpower Development is an integral part of the S&T Programmes
of DST. Innovative human resource development programmes were
initiated/continued. In this line, it promoted many of the
continuing projects and programmes like the Kishore Vaigyanik
Prothsahan Yojana (KVPY), DSTJNC Summer Student Fellowships,
Integrated Science Olympiad Programme etc and also encouraged
programmes supporting Young Scientists to take up challenging
R&D activities as a career. Training Programmes, SERC
schools, PROBE for school children and Fast Track schemes
for young scientists have been progressing well in terms of
quantity and quality.
The following SERC Schools were organized in various front
line techniques and advanced areas:
- SERC School on Condensed Matter Physics and Materials
Science at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata;
- SERC School on Nonlinear Dynamics, Pondicherry University;
- SERC School on Biophotonics, CAT, Indore;
- A new dimension to NMR: From molecules to human behaviour
- A national level school;
- SERC School on Texture and Micro-texture;
- SERC School on Chronobiology, Gulbarga University;
- SERC School on Fermentation Process Modeling, Optimization
and control: experimental and simulation Methods;
- SERC School on Colloids and Interfaces: Fundamentals and
- SERC School on Ultra-fast Studies;
- Preparatory SERC School in Theoretical High Energy Physics,
- Main SERC School in Theoretical High Energy Physics, PRL,
- SERC School in Nuclear Physics, VECC, Kolkata;
- SERC School in Chrono-biology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram,
- SERC School on Natural Disaster Management, Indian Institute
of Technology, Delhi;
- SERC School on Special functions with matrix arguments;
- SERC School on Mathematical Modeling of Water Quality
- SERC School on GPS Augmentation Systems and Atmospheric
- SERC School on Aviation Meteorology with special reference
to Thunderstorms and its Modeling.
- Brain Storming Seminar on the High Performance Computing
for Weather and Climate Modelling;
- Two training workshops on 'Applications of WP/RASS' during
March, 2005 and November, 2005;
- Advanced Training Program in Mathematics for Under Graduate
Students of Eastern U.P. Region" (Christ Church College,
- Workshops in Mathematics for students of Mumbai region
(IIT Bombay, Mumbai);
- Workshop on Techniques in Applied Mathematics (University
- Instructional Workshop on Convex Analysis, Optimization
and Applications (IIT, Kanpur);
- National Symposium on Scientific Computing with application
to PDEs (IIT, Kanpur);
- Training Programme on microwave remote sensing data analysis
for snow cover and glacier studies at IIT, Mumbai.
- A field oriented training programme on Hamta Glacier by
Geological Survey of India;
- Training Programme on Deltas and Offshore Sedimentary
Basins- Hydrocarbon Potential;
- Training Programme on Application of RS & GIS in Earth
Sciences by GSI, Hyderabad;
- Training Programme on Lithofacies Mapping in Sedimentary
Basins GSI, Hyderabad;
- Training Programme on Sequence Stratigraphy;
- Training programme on GEON Cyberinfrastrucure;
- Training programme on Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry;
- Five workshops-cum-training programmes in the emerging
and frontline areas of biomedical science such as molecular
diagnosis of diseases, brain and behavior, Hematology; techniques
in molecular oncology, neurobiology, and advancement in
drug development; and
- Specialized training Programme in Computational Seismology
at IIT, Kharagpur & Tezpur University.
DST Schools on Mathematical Modeling
in Earth System Sciences
The main aim of this programme is to develop manpower in
mathematical modeling and computer simulation for better understanding
of processes and phenomena in Earth System Sciences (Earth
, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences), which can fill up the
present and future needs of our country, through organizing
various types of inter-disciplinary and multi-institutional
training activities in different parts of the country.
So far , during the period of the report , eight DST advanced
Training Courses / programme were organized and about 230
candidates (Students, Research Scholars , Scientists and Teachers
,etc ) in the different field of Earth System Sciences from
all over India (including outside of India) were participated
under the programme . In addition to the above , six lecture
notes volume were published and around 120 resource persons
(delivered lectures and conducted practical classes, etc)
in the different fields and different parts of our country
were also attended the programmed . Overall details of the
organized courses / training, etc, are as below:
Manpower Development in Nano-Science
- Application of GIS/ GPS and Digital Cartography by University
- Mathematical Modelling of Groundwater in Mining areas
by CMRI, Dhanbad
- Application of GIS/ GPS and Remote Sensing in Development
of Planning and Management by Udai Pratap Autonomous P.G.
- Mathematical Modelling in Hydrogeology : Numerical Simulation
of Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport by Anna University,
- Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Mass Transport
for the Effective Management of Aquifers by CESS, Thiruvananthapuram
- Groundwater Flow and Mass Transport Modelling for the
Assessment and Management of Aquifers by Tamil Nadu Agricultural
- Mathematical Models in Hydro-geochemistry : Assessment
of Ground-water Quality and Management by JNU, New Delhi
- Role of Mathematical Modelling in ground water flow and
transport by Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
Towards manpower development in nano-science & technology,
the recently introduced scheme 'Postdoctoral Fellowships in
Nanoscience & Technology' has been progressing well. Second
Advanced school on Nanoscience & Technology was held at
S.N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata. The
school aimed at 'Science of size reduction, different routes
of preparation and characterization of Nano-materials and
applications' had received overwhelming response from nano
researchers. A national conference on Nano Science & Technology
was organized in NCL, Pune. The proceedings of the conference
have come out as a special volume of 'Pramana'. The second
International Conference on Nano Science & Technology
(ICONSAT 2006) will be organized in Delhi during March 2006.
PROBE- Introducing Meteorology in
Department of Science & Technology under its IS-STAC
programme has taken an initiative to launch the scheme on
Participation of youth in Real-time/ field Observations for
the Benefit of Education (PROBE). The primary objective in
the PROBE project initiated in the States of Uttranchal, Tamil
Nadu, National Capital Region of Delhi and North-East is to
train students in taking meteorological observations for understanding
The pilot project U-PROBE Programme is being implemented
in the State of Uttaranchal in collaboration with State Education
Directorate, Uttranchal. Under the project U-PROBE Meteorological
Laboratories are being introduced in 100 Senior Secondary
Schools/ Government Inter Colleges of the hilly state. Physical
parameters such as Temperature, Wind Speed, Wind Direction,
Rainfall, Wet and Dry bulb temperatures are measured by school
children and entered in computers. Data are being stored in
PROBE database for future use. Annual U-PROBE Data Books are
being brought out as hard copy for the benefit of researchers
Other programme achievements and highlights are
- Six Technical Resource Centres (TRCs) have been supported
in the Academic Institutions of the State namely; Indian
Institute of Technology, Roorkee; GBPIHED, Almorah; GBPUAT,
Pant Nagar; Kumaun University, Nainital; HNB Garhwal University,
Srinagar, and DARL, Pithoragarh. The scientists from these
are actively involved in guiding the schools in implementation.
- Data i.e. temperature (min. max., dry bulb & wet
bulb), humidity, dew point, wind speed (km/ hour), wind
direction, rainfall and cloud were recorded from 1 November
2003 to 31 January, 2005 in schools, GIC, Roorkee; GGIC,
Jwalapur; GIC Uttarkashi; GIC, Kotdwar; R.N Bhargava College,
Mussoori; GIC, Ukhimath; GIC, Srinagar; GIC Narendranagar;
GIC, Khetikhan; GIC, Lohaghat; GIC, Shantipuri GIC, Tanakpur;
GIC, Pati ; GIC, Nainital; GIC, Okhalkhanda; GIC Didihat;
GIC Gurangchand GIC, Pithoragarh; GIC, Almora; GIC Kasauni
have been computerized.
- Under the programme, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
held meetings to discuss development of Protocols for the
programme and for training of Master Trainers. Second Master
Trainer's workshop for school teacher of the Uttranchal
on U-PROBE program was organized from 5-17th September,
2005 at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. In this workshop,
30 teachers from GICs participated.
Figure 7.1: U-PROBE Meteorological Laboratory in Uttaranchal
- School Teachers are being given incentives/ leave compensation
for participating in the programme. Teachers from U-PROBE
schools and representatives from other TRC and U-PROBE State
Level Cell in Uttranchal were invited to participate in
the International Conference on Hydrology Perspectives for
Sustainable Development held from February 23-26 at IIT
Roorkee. A software demonstration meeting was also organized
by TRC Almorah with Mr. Deepak Goel NIC for teachers of
- A number of eminent scientists' and expert's lectures
were organized on topics related to impact of Weather and
Climate in different U-PROBE schools.
- In addition, U-PROBE UPDATE was brought out in 2005 giving
the progress made by each of the six technical resource
centers, data collected by school students and its analysis
as well as the specific research activities of the various
technical resources centers. National Informatics Center
(NIC) has updated the U-PROBE website.
- The U-PROBE project is proving important not only in creating
awareness among school children about weather, climate and
climate change, but also in enriching of meteorological
data for Uttranchal State.
- The U-PROBE Programme Advisory and Monitoring Committee
(UPAMC) met on 2nd March 2005 under the Chairmanship of
Prof. V.R.Gowarikar, Chairman, Rajiv Gandhi S&T Commission,
Government of Maharashtra, Pune.
The NCR-PROBE program has been launched in the 50 schools
of the National Capital Region of Delhi. PROBE Meteorological
Laboratories are set up in six Defence schools of Delhi. First
NCRPROBE Workshop on Meteorological and Environmental Education
was organized on 27th Oct 2005 at India International Centre,
Lodhi Road, New Delhi. In this workshop about 100 students
and teachers from the Defence Schools and Principals from
Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangthan Schools, officers from DST, Education
Department, IMD, members of the NCR-PROBE Expert Committee
Honb'le Shri Kapil Sibal, Minister of Science & Technology
and Ocean Development, inaugurated the Workshop. On this occasion,
two brochures on Protocols for PROBE Measurements on Weather
and Climate and Meteorological and Environmental Education
for Schools were released. In addition the website on NCR-PROBE
were also launched. A Video Clipping on Weather Around Us
and technical presentations on NCR-PROBE Programme in Defence
Schools in Delhi, Role of India Metrological Department in
PROBE, NCR-PROBE Programme for School Education, Disaster
Management and Need for Training of Master Trainers were made
by Adviser DST, Acting Directing General IMD, Additional Director
General (Retd.) IMD, Chairman, Expert Committee on NCRPROBE
and ISRO Visiting Professor, Professor, Centre for Atmospheric
Sciences, IIT, Delhi and others. Students from Air Force Bal
Bharati School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, and Army Public School,
Noida presented their experiences in participation under NCR-PROBE.
Figure 7.2: Students participating
in observations of wind speed
Figure 7.3: Students learning to measure
rainfall using rain gauge
Children would be encouraged to get hand-on experience, conduct
scientific experiments, learn about meteorology and enter
the data into computers. For facilitating implementation of
the programme, training of Master trainers/ school teachers
and generation of meteorological database, Technical Resource
Centres (TRCs) are being supported in Jawahar Lal Nehru University
(JNU), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi College
of Engineering, Bawana. and Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology,
Dwarka and others.
The PROBE program has also been launched in the southern
coastal parts of Tamilnadu. The Aditnar College of Arts &
Science, Virapandianpatnam, Trichendur District, Tamilnadu
is acting as a Technical Resource Centre. About 15 schools
will be covered in the coastal districts of Kanyakumari, Triunelvelli
and Thoothukkudi in the first phase. These schools will be
equipped with computers and meteorological instruments for
introducing meteorological laboratories. The project is supported
by DST and will implemented in collaboration with the State
Department of Education through the Directorate of School
Education, District Rural Development Agencies (DRDA) and
the Fisheries Department of Government of Tamil Nadu at the
beginning and later with the involvement of village communities,
NGO's and Parent-Teachers Association of various schools.
Hundreds of accidents occur every year in the sea of this
area resulting in the loss of human lives and also properties.
The accidents occur due to the unpredictable sea conditions
caused primarily by water-currents and wind. The project would
create a scientific temper among the students of the schools
and also help fishing folks.
ORISSA-PROBE has been initiated with the premise that almost
three-quarters of all national disasters - flood, tropical
cyclone and drought forest-fire and epidemics are weather
or climatic related in this region. Their impact is particularly
severe herein the sub-continent because of inscrutable monsoon.
A two-day workshop was organized in Bhubaneswar, Orissa in
November, 2005. During the workshop, nature of participation
of various holders was discussed. State Education Department,
MET Department, RRL, Bhubaneswar, Orissa - DST Orissa - State
Disaster Mitigation authority were the main participants.
In addition, participants representing State Universities,
teachers, NGOs and independent authorities participated in
During the year, NE-PROBE program has also being initiated
in North Eastern Himalayas in Darjeeling (West Bengal). Twenty
schools are being identified for establishing meteorological
laboratories and participation in this program. Bose Institute,
Kolkata has been supported to facilitate implementation in
the schools and act as Technical Resource Center. The project
was formally inaugurated by Hon'ble Governor of West Bengal
on 3rd November, 2005.
Himalayan School Observatory Programme
Fast Track Scheme for Young Scientists
- The programme is being implemented by Wadia Institute
of Himalayan Geology and Manipur University for NW Himalaya
& NE Himalaya respectively.
- In NW Himalaya, all the 50 locations have been identified
and site preparation work is in progress and it is planned
to complete the installation work in the Current Financial
- A workshop was orgaanised during September 29-October
6,2005 at WHIG to impart necessary training to school teachers.
The training was very well received and 48 teachers out
of 50 schools attended it.
- In NE Himalaya, 40 sites have been identified & 23
sites have already been prepared for Installation of Seismograph.
The work on remaining 17 sites has also been initiated.
Realizing the importance of development of Scientific Manpower
for taking up research in challenging areas of S&T, the
Department in its 10th plan has decided to focus upon the
schemes that are facilitate encouraging, supporting and nurturing
Science students and Young Scientists in a coordinated manner.
The Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC), Department
of Science & Technology, in order to provide quick research
support to young scientists below the age of 35 years, has
introduced a new fast track mechanism since 2000-2001.
During the current year, sanctions have been issued for about
180 new projects and 230 ongoing projects in various disciplines.
Several interesting and significant results were reported
from ongoing projects. 49 proposals have been funded in different
areas of Chemical Science.
Significant results in the ongoing projects are as follows:
- A series of methodologies (Ferrier rearrangement for O-
and C- glycosidation, acetylation of carbohydrates over
solid catalyst, preparation of glycofuranosides from acyclic
glycosyl dithioacetal, one pot reaction protocol for the
preparation of thioglycosides directly from unprotected
reducing sugars) useful to synthetic organic chemistry have
- An efficient method has been developed for Mukaiyama aldol
reaction of silyl enol ethers and silyl ketene acetal with
aldehydes, ketones and acetals catalysed by iodine. Yield
of the product was found to be 68-87% with preferential
anti-selectivity. A new route for the synthesis of homoallylic
amines has also been developed using iodine as catalyst.
- A series of novel surfactants where supramolecular chirality
could be tuned very efficiently and explored in stereoselective
ketone reduction haves been developed. The importance of
the rigidity imposed at the micellar interface by surfactant
head group towards controlling the enantioselectivity has
been established for the first time.
- Au-MPM and Au-TC electrodes have been found to oxidize
NADH selectively in presence of interferants in a wide range
of concentration. The ethanol biosensor has been fabricated
by immobilizing ADH using a polymer PAA on the SAM-modified
- Innovative screening methods for isolating oil degrading
or oil utilizing microbial strains and for tapping protease
secreting strains from the environment have been evolved.
These methods have led to the isolation of 9 protease secreting
strains, 9 oil utilization strains and two other metal tolerant
- A first ever attempt has been made to isolate and characterize
the protein from goat. The work for complete sequencing
of the protein is under way. The results were published
in reputed international journals.
- DNA sequencing of MSP-1 and AMA-1 clones from few of the
isolates were done. Out of these 3 variants were obtained
for expression analysis. Present study has led to the identification
of one more allele, which is seen worldwide but could not
be seen in the previous analysis, is found to be present
in Indian isolates. With respect to AMA-1 also, there is
allelic variations as seen from this study, though the isolates
were too less in number.
- Neuro protective effect of 4 - amino-1,8-napthalimide
(4-ANI), a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor
was investigated in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)
- induced focal ischemia in rat model.
Better Opportunities for Young
Scientists in Chosen Areas of Science & Technology (BOYSCAST)
The BOYSCAST programme provides opportunities to young Indian
scientists/technologists below the age of 35 years, who hold
regular positions in recognized S&T institutes in India
to visit reputed institutions abroad, interact with scientists/technologists
there, get exposure to latest research techniques and participate
and contribute to the latest developments in specially chosen
areas of Science & Technology. During the year, fellowships
have been awarded to 46 scientists/technologists for conducting
research/undergoing specialized training in overseas research
laboratories/institutes in the following broad areas: Atmospheric
& Earth sciences, Chemical sciences, Engineering sciences,
Life sciences, Mathematical sciences and Physical sciences.
Swarnajayanti Fellowships Programme
Swarnajayanti Fellowships programme was launched with the
objective to encourage young scientists to undertake basic
research in frontier areas of science and technology and achieve
standards of excellence, which are comparable with the best
in the world. The fellowships are open to Indian young scientists,
in the age group of 30-40 years, with a proven track record.
The selected candidates are given attractive fellowship besides
project grants. A research programme is considered in the
frontier areas of science, engineering or medicine for a maximum
period of five years. The support under the project covers
grants for equipment, manpower, contingencies, consumables,
travel including international travel and administrative and
During 2004-05, the eight young scientists/engineers viz.
Dr. Sandeep Verma (Chemical Sciences); Dr. Nimish A. Shah
(Mathematical Sciences); Dr. Rajesh S. Gokhale (Life Sciences);
Dr. P.K. Panigrahi and Dr. Navakanta Bhat (Engineering Sciences);
and Dr. Gautam I Menon, Dr. Vasant Natarajan & Dr. Tanusri
Saha Das Gupta (Physical Sciences) were selected for the award
of Swarnajayanti Fellowships.
Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana
About 80 students were selected this year under this scheme.
For the students continuing in the Scheme, summer training
programmes were again organized this year in a number of institutions
across the country. Based on their scholastic performance
in their respective courses of study and their performance
in the summer training programme, the scholarship was renewed.
Science Olympiad Programme
The Indian teams again performed very well in the International
Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology Olympiads. The
medal tally this year was as follows: in Mathematics : 1 silver,
1 bronze and 3 Honourable Mentions; in Physics : 2 gold, 2
silver and 1 bronze; in Chemistry : 3 Silver and 1 Bronze;
and, in Biology : 1 Gold and 3 bronze medals.
Assistance For Participation
In Conferences Abroad(PFA)
The objective of the scheme is to provide partial travel
assistance to the Indian Scientists to participate in the
International Conference/workshop, training Programme etc.
to provide an opportunity to the Indian Scientist to interact
with their foreign counterparts which enables them to update
their knowledge and also present their research findings at
an International level for a better peer reviewing.
During the current year, 1172 candidates supported out of
total number of 2175 applications received up to 31st December,
2005. Out of this, about 434 young scientists were supported
towards travel grants to participate in International Conferences/Workshops,
Training Programmes etc. Some of the young outstanding scientists
were given 100% travel grants also. Some of the important
conferences were IUFRO World Congress, International Conference
on Carbon, Materials for Advanced Technologies, International
Conference on Computational Methods & Function Theory,
International Conference on Plasma Science, International
Conference on Green & Sustainable Chemistry, International
Chemical Conference etc.
Scheme for Committed Young Professionals
Action research projects are granted to young scientists
(upper age limit of 35 years for men, 40 years for women)
with the objective of (a) attempting a field implementation
of an idea, or (b) developing new techniques for solving problems,
which do not have clear solutions at present. Young scientists'
are encouraged to pursue innovative research ideas, which
have direct bearing on social problems through selected voluntary
organizations, academic institutions or research laboratories.
Highlights of some of the projects sanctioned during the
year under reference are given below:
- Everybody's Mobile Hand Operated Washing Machine:
A cost effective Hand Operated Washing Machine has been
designed applying the old principles of the motion of human
hand on the washboard, by using a lever to move one curved
surface over another and rubbing cloths between two ribbed
surfaces. It has a cylindrical stainless steel unit of dimensions
80 centimeters length and 40 centimeters width. On the sides,
a gear system is placed to increase RPM and a fibreglass
wheel is attached inside the smaller gear through a shaft.
There is a system to drain out the used water. The system
rests on a stand with wheels. Most of the energy used by
a washing machine (electrical) comes from heating the water.
To provide heat naturally, the outside portion of the washing
drum is painted mat black. By placing the unit with water
in sunlight, the water gets warmed up. Operating mechanism:
About 5 kg. Clothes along with 100 gms of soap is placed
in the drum. Water is filled in the drum. The handle is
rotated for 15 minutes in the clockwise direction and the
other handle is rotated for another 15 minutes, in the anti
- clockwise direction. Before this operation, the clothes
are kept in wet condition for an hour so that the soap gets
soaked into the clothes. The soap water after washing is
drained out. Again water is filled and the operation repeated
for 5 minutes each. After that the clothes are removed,
rinsed in a bucket of water and sun dried.
- Papaya tissue culture and standardization of its micro
propagation method: Papaya plantations are always established
from seedlings. Sex cannot be determined until the mid developmental
stage. Plant multiplication by tissue culture method is
a suitable proposition to supply the farmers the required
number of healthy male, female or hermaphrodite plants.
Pusa Nanha, Pusa dwarf, Co1, Co2, Honey Dew & Ranchi
were collected. Because of its complex genetic makeup, there
are few, if any, true cultivars of papaya, which are uniform
in horticultural characteristics. Papaya plants show significant
variation in yield, fruit quality and disease susceptibility
within the cultivated population. All three systems were
employed for the in-vitro culture of papaya, namely, proliferation
of apical and/or auxiliary buds in culture, nodal culture
(Figure 7.4) and in-vitro multiplication through callus
induction and organogenesis/embryogenesis.
Figure 7.4: Growth of the nodal culture of papaya
- In another project, a kiln has been designed and fabricated
to make low cost charcoal from bio - mass. The design consists
of cylindrical drums with channel to accommodate water and
a lid with 1" (inch) chimney. The apparatus is placed
in a pit, so that the entire charge is below ground level.
The inverted funnel is aboveground level, so that it can
be placed easily after lighting the charge. It has been
made in the form of a stand that is placed after the inverted
funnel. . A hollow cylinder, made of two halves, has been
placed around the vessel. The valve for controlling primary
air is at ground level. During the experiment, wine gauze
must be stuffed into the stem. The bottom of the vessel
must be 1 foot above the top the stem, so that the tar gets
burnt before it comes into contact with the vessel. The
inner drum is provided with eyes so that the whole drum
can be lifted out of the pit using a bar, for emptying its
contents. The charcoal drum can be easily lifted up without
having any physical problems. Volatiles are used for heating
water. Field testing of the model is being carried out in
various silk production units.
During the year, 5 projects were completed successfully.
Some of the achievements emerging out of these projects are
- Standardized technologies for carbonated fruit juice drinks.
- Bio-control agents and fungicides have been developed
for Fusarium corn rot of saffron.
- Standardized techniques of using Trichogramma chilonis
- a bio control agent for combating the early seedling borer
of Sugarcane, Chilo infuscatellus.