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Annual Report 2005-2006

Professional Societies

Indian National Academy Of Engineering

Republic Day Honours

Three Fellows of the Academy were conferred with Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shree on the eve of the Republic Day (January 26, 2005) by the President of India.
Padma Vibhushan - Dr. MVS Valiathan
Padma Bhushan - Dr. N. Seshagiri
  - Prof. VS Ramamurthy
Padma Shri - Prof. B Dattaguru
  - Dr. Dipankar Banerjee
  - Dr. Srikumar Banerjee

Engineering Excellence Awards

Life Time Contribution Award in Engineering 2005

Prof. V. Rajaraman, Honorary Professor, Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and Prof. GS Sanyal, Adviser, Vinod Gupta School of Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur have been selected for Life Time Contribution Awards in Engineering 2005 for making most distinguished contributions in the field of Engineering/ Engineering Research/Technology, which have brought prestige to the nation and regarded as landmarks of technological development of the country.

Prof. SN Mitra Memorial Award 2005

Prof. SN Mitra Memorial Award has been instituted in the memory of Late Prof. SN Mitra, first Honorary Secretary and Past Vice-President of the Indian National Academy of Engineering. Prof. AB Bhattacharyya, Formerly Professor, CARE, IIT Delhi and formerly Programme Director, VLSI Design, Department of Physics, Goa University, has been selected for Prof. SN Mitra Memorial Award 2005.

Young Engineer Award 2005

The Academy in 1996 instituted INAE Young Engineer Awards for excellence in design and technology transfer, innovative development and engineering research. So far, 87 young engineers have been conferred this Award and their early recognition has encouraged the best upcoming talent to make innovative engineering and technological contributions for our national development.

The nominations for this award for the year 2005 were sought from INAE Fellows, Engineering Institutions, R&D Laboratories during March 2005. Out of fifty four candidates including sixteen carried over from the previous years, eight candidates have been selected for the INAE Young Engineer Award 2005.

Innovative Student Projects Award 2005

The Academy has instituted Innovative Student Projects Award since 1998 to identify innovative and creative research projects undertaken by the students at three levels, BE/ B. Tech., ME/ M. Tech. and Ph. D. in Engineering Colleges. The Scheme envisages joint projects among Industry, Research Laboratories and Academic Institutions.

Sixty one nominations were received during the year. Four candidates at Doctoral level, five at Master's level and nine at Bachelor's level have been selected for conferment of Innovative Student Projects Award 2005.

International Conference on "Road Map to Hydrogen Economy"

An International Conference on "Road Map to Hydrogen Economy" was organized on March 4- 5, 2005 at National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad. The Conference was inaugurated by Dr. Anil Kakodkar, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai. The objective of the Conference was to take timely initiative to spearhead an effort to bring into focus this strategically important emerging technology which brought together experts/scientists/technologists engaged in this field to dwell on important topics and to give direction to the efforts being made in this important futuristic technology.

The sub-themes of the Conference were Innovative Pathways to Hydrogen; Storage and Dispensing of Hydrogen; Application of Hydrogen for Energy Production; Large Scale Hydrogen Production Processes - Current Status; Safety and Codes of Practice and Economic Issues. The discussion led to draw future road map towards hydrogen economy and a Policy Paper covering major recommendations of the Conference is under preparation.

Research Highlights

Indian Engineering Heritage

The INAE Study Group on Indian Engineering Heritage-Metallurgy organized a Discussion Meeting on "Delhi Iron Pillar" on March 11, 2005 at Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi which was supported by Department of Science and Technology, Department of Culture and Archaeological Society of India.

The Delhi iron pillar has long attracted the admiration of historians and curiosity of metallurgists mainly for its large size, manufacturing, and its excellent state of preservation. Several theories have been proposed in the past to explain the origin, manufacturing technology and superior corrosion resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar which has withstood corrosion for the last 1600 years. However, there has been no unified theory or mechanism to explain the origin, manufacturing technology and longstanding corrosion resistance of the Pillar. The recommendations for future work were made.

Lecture by Prof. Norman Jones

A lecture was organized at India International Centre, New Delhi on March 14, 2005 by Prof. Norman Jones, AA Griffith Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director of Impact Research Centre, The University of Liverpool, Department of Engineering, UK on "Some recent developments on the response of structural members subjected to large impact and blast loadings". Prof. Jones is a renowned mechanical engineer, whose contributions in theoretical, numerical and experimental studies into the dynamic inelastic behaviour of structure and systems have been recognized internationally.

INAE Industry Executive Forum Meeting

A meeting of the INAE Industry Executive Forum was held on June 17, 2005 in the Board Room of National Academy of Construction, Hyderabad. The Forum discussed at length about the necessity for Academia -Industry to come closer for participation in the industrial development and the areas of interest in the respective industries. It was brought out during the meeting that in many National Academies of Engineering, there is a representation of 50% from industry. In this context, the Forum proposed to work out a methodology of recommending prominent persons from industry and induct them as Fellows in the coming three to four years time.

AICTE-INAE Distinguished Visiting Professorship Scheme

The 8th Steering Committee Meeting of the AICTE- INAE Distinguished Visiting Professorship Scheme was held on August 5, 2005 at INAE Secretariat, New Delhi. Thirty Four nominations received for the year 2005 were discussed. After deliberations, the Committee selected 13 Distinguished Visiting Professors. A book containing the lectures delivered by industry experts has been brought out.

Election of Fellows 2006

The Sectional Committees of the Council met on August 19, 2005 at New Delhi and gave recommendations of nominees for various engineering sections. The Governing Council met on September 23, 2005 in which the Conveners/Acting Conveners gave a brief on each of the nominees recommended by the Sectional Committees. Forty five Fellows and five Foreign Fellows were elected to the Academy effective from January 1, 2006.

INAE Forum on Engineering Education

In response to Parliamentary Committee of Ministry of Human Resource Development, chaired by Shri Vayalar Ravi, M.P. inviting the suggestions on University and Higher Education in India, through an advertisement, that was published in the newspaper on December 20, 2004; the Draft Discussion Paper on 'Policy related to Higher Technical Education' was prepared by INAE Forum on Engineering Education. The paper was circulated to the Fellow to elicit their views/ comments. A symposium cum discussion meeting on Higher Technical Education - Policy Issues was held at NIAS, Bangalore on October 7, 2005 and the report is being finalized.

Reports on State of Engineering and Technology

The draft reports on State of Engineering and Technology were received and sent for peer review. A brain storming session was held on November 11, 2005 at ECC Division, Larsen & Toubro Ltd., Chennai to finalize the draft reports on "State of Engineering and Technology" pertaining to all the Engineering Sections.

International Affairs

16th CAETS Convocation

CAETS held its 16th Convocation in Cairns, Australia, from 10-14 July 2005. The theme of the Convocation was "Oceans and the World's Future". The Indian delegation comprised Dr. K Kasturirangan, President,INAE, Dr A Ramakrishna, Immediate Past President, Dr Placid Rodriguez, Vice President, Professor C. V. Ramakrishnan, Honorary Secretary and Dr Vijay Agarwal of Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad.

The main focus of the Symposium was to examine the scientific, technological and engineering issues that link the world's future with the oceans. The presentations by the international experts assembled for the Convocation and the discussions during the Convocation Symposium sessions and an associated workshop on tsunamis, led the representatives of the twenty academies attending the Council meeting of 14 July to issue a call for urgent attention to the vital role of the oceans. The CAETS Statement focuses on nine key conclusions:

  • Climatic change in the ocean is a crucial issue for the future of mankind;
  • Human use of the marine environment must be made sustainable;
  • Combined social and technological approaches are needed to ensure the future of world fisheries;
  • New technologies are emerging to enhance the efficiency of marine transport;
  • Global petroleum demand is driving ambitious new offshore exploration and extraction technologies;
  • The oceans can provide new resources of energy and minerals;
  • To secure the sustainable future of the oceans and their resources, we must continue to develop new technologies for monitoring and data processing;
  • We must develop and exploit emerging technologies for disaster reduction; and
  • The academies have a key role to play in ensuring the wise and sustainable use of the oceans;

In the light of these conclusions, which are elaborated in the Statement approved by the Council on 14 July and released on 28 July 2005, CAETS made suitable recommendations to all appropriate national and international organisations dealing with the oceans.

The CAETS academies can help in many ways with the implementation of recommendations through studies, information and advice. In light of the detailed outcomes from the Cairns Convocation, they would be pleased to do so. INAE has forwarded the CAETS statement to the Department of Ocean Development of Government of India.

Discussions were also held on individual activities of each Academy and issues of concern. The points and issues in these discussions had many commonalities as under:

  • Integral water management;
  • Nanotechnologies;
  • Energy sources and distribution;
  • Sustainable and renewable energy technologies;
  • Hydrogen and its future potential use in mobile and stationary application;
  • National Science and Technology policies;
  • Promotion of Engineering Excellence;
  • Enhancing Academia-Industry Interaction;
  • Engineering Education; and
  • Attracting more people to a wider range of engineering.

A joint statement from international scientific, engineering, and medical organizations was presented to the Heads of State and Government meeting at the United Nations General Assembly, September 2005. CAETS is a signatory to the statement. The Statement recognizes

  • that science, technology, and innovation are essential components of effective strategies and programs for reducing poverty and associated problems;
  • that, to enable developing countries to pursue the evidence-based policies required to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, they will need sound mechanisms and essential infrastructure for applying scientific and technological knowledge to national problem solving; and
  • that sustainable national structures and strategies are needed to provide and maintain a source of well-trained, knowledgeable people and urges that the United Nations enhances its institutional capability to address urgent global issues involving science and technology.

MOU with ATSE

The S&T Cooperation Agreement was signed between INAE and Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) during the visit of the INAE delegation to CAETS in July 2005. Consequent to this Agreement, ATSE has sent a proposal to have a joint Australia-India Workshop on "Broadband Communication and Information Technology" to be held in Australia during May 2006.
Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi

The Academy was established in 1935, as an apex body of Indian Scientists representing all branches of science and technology.

Major Highlights

  • The present Council Assumed office after the 70th Anniversary General Meeting at Chennai in December 2004.
  • Elected 26 scientists as Fellows and 2 overseas scientists as Foreign Fellows. Fifteen Young Scientists (below 32 years of age) were selected 'INSA Young Scientist Medal Award'. Decided to increase the upper age limit from 32 to 35 years for consideration of scientists for INSA Medal for Young Scientist Award.
  • Twenty two awards were announced (4 General Medals / Lectures, 18 Subject-wise awards). 17 award lectures were delivered during General Meetings and under the aegis of Local Chapters.
  • National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) was engaged to conduct a feasibility study and later to work on the first ever India Science Report. The primary and secondary data from all over the country was collected and critically analyzed. The report has been completed and is ready for release.
  • Two study reports on 'Strategies and a Road-Map for Development of Instrumentation in India' and 'Science Career for Indian Women' were released. The reports have been well received by concerned stakeholders.
  • Organized, jointly with Department of Science & Technology and Department of Ocean Development, a two-day Brainstorming Session (January 21-22, 2005) on the Great Tsunami event of December 26, 2004. The discussion in this and subsequent meeting resulted in preparation of recommendations which have now been taken up by the concerned agencies.
  • The National Committees of various ICSU Unions were recognized by clubbing together committees of overlapping subject areas for greater interaction of scientists belonging to similar disciplines.

Organized 10 major ICSU events in India including the General Assembly of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of Environment) from February 7-13, 2005.

  • Established scientific cooperation with Academia Sinica, Taiwan to promote cooperation in all fields of science & technology. The bilateral co-operation with Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) was reviewed to encourage Indian and Japanese scientists to formulate joint research programmes of mutual interest under this scheme.
  • Participated in universal digital library project by making available all publications (books and monographs) in digital format.

The Academy during the period 2004-2005, financially supported a number of scientists and scientific institutes for research purposes through its ongoing schemes as detailed under:

Scientific Research & Research Training in Basic Sciences

INSA supported 5 Research Professorships named after distinguished Indian Scientists, 56 Senior Scientists, 24 Honarary Scientists, 30 Visiting Fellowships, 74 Seminars/ Symposia/ Conferences/ Workshops under the Science Promotion Programme. Under Young Scientist Programme, INSA supported 17 Young Scientist Medal awardees Projects.

History of Science Projects

During 2004-2005, under History of Science programme, 16 projects are supported under Modern, Medieval and Ancient period.
ICSU / NON-ICSU

As an adhering organization, Academy participates through a delegation in the General Assemblies/ Congress such as IUGG, IAU, IUBMB, IUPAC, IUBS, etc. During the year 2004-2005, the Academy supported about 86 Scientists under ICSU programme and about 375 Scientists under NON-ICSU programme.

Under the sponsorship of ICSU and its affiliated Unions / Committees, the Academy organized following scientific events:

  • International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) sponsored STATPHYS 2004 at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore from July 4-9, 2004.
  • HAZARDS 2004 - An International Union of Geodesy & Geophysics (IUGG) sponsored International Conference at National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad from 2-4 December 2004.
  • International Union of Pure & Applied Biophysics (IUPAB) sponsored International Workshop on Biomedical MR at INSA from 12-15 January, 2005.
  • International Union of Pure & Applied Biophysics (IUPAB) sponsored International Conference on Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems in Hyderabad during 16-21 January, 2005.
  • Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) general Assembly at INSA, New Delhi during February 7-13, 2005.

Inter Academy Exchange Programme

In the year 2004-2005, 85 Indian scientists were deputed abroad to work in academic R&D institutions and hosted 75 overseas scientists to work in Indian Institutions under various bilateral exchange programmes.

Publications

INSA brought out following publications during the year:

  • IJPAM - 12 issues
  • PINSA - A - 6 issues
  • PINSA - B - 6 issues
  • IJHS - 4 issues
  • INSA News
  • Annual Report in English & Hindi
  • Biographical Memoir
  • Year Book
  • Fellowship Nomination Books

Local Chapters/ Popularisation of Science

18 Local Chapters of INSA at various places in the country primarily have been strengthening scientific activities, popularizing science and promote interaction amongst the local scientific community, local academies and learned bodies. Award lectures are delivered under the aegis of Local Chapters.

Informatics

Citation analysis based on CD-ROM database of Science Citation Index, science information notes, current awareness and abstracts are provided free of charge to scientific community and interested groups. Receiving about 500 scientific and technical journals under exchange arrangements and has collection of about 14,000 books covering History and Philosophy of Science, Science Management and Science Policy.

A dynamic INSA website has been created and uploaded. Software development for secretariat has also been initiated. The Academy has digitized the printed version of INSA Journals since its inception on e-format and which have been placed on INSA website for online access globally.

Science Education Programme

INSA organized seminars / lectures on Science Advancements, science teaching, science popularization for Science Students and popular lectures to create public understanding of Science.

India Science Report

Realizing the need to measure quantitatively the scientific progress made by the country, the Academy along with NCAER had undertaken the work of preparation of an Indian Science Report on the line of World Science Report of the UN. The charter was to focus on science education, human resource in science and technology and public understanding of science. NCAER drew out an elaborate plan to collect primary data through all India field survey and the report was released by Dr. Manmohan Singh, Hon'ble Prime Minister of India on 28th September, 2005.

Emerging and Contemporary Issues

The Academy planned to bring out four reports in a year on emerging subjects which could arguably have a major impact on any or all sectors of India's economy. In line of the same, the Academy has brought out report on 'Instrumentation in India'; 'Science Career for Women' during the year 2004- 2005.

Brain Storming Session on the Great Tsunami Event of December 26, 2004

A Brain Storming Session on January 21-22, 2005 was organized jointly by DST, DOD and INSA, immediately after December 26, 2004 earthquake. It was attended by nearly 200 participants from India and experts from abroad namely USA, CANADA, Japan, Germany, Russia as well as representatives of the UN.

The deliberations took place in three technical sessions and panel discussion. An overview and discussion of events associated with the tsunami, efforts to monitor the effects of the tsunami, public awareness/training and international cooperative endeavours and discussion on the tectonic setting of the region provided the necessary background for the discussions on the deployment of a tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean.

National Science Day

The Science Day lecture on 'Tsunamis' was delivered by Dr. S.R. Shetye, FNA, Director, NIO, Goa on 28th February 2005 in the Academy premises focusing on origin of Tsunamis.

CCSTDS (Earlier COSTED)

The Financial support by the Government of India for setting up and maintaining the CCSTDS Secretariat located at Madras is provided through INSA.

The Academy in association with DST and CSIR, established a new center- CCSTDS (Centre for Cooperation in Science & Technology among Developing Societies) in place of erstwhile COSTED (Committee on Science & Technology in Developing Countries). COSTED - a constituent committee of ICSU - was wound up by ICSU. CCSTDS will primarily focus on Enhancing mobility of S&T professionals in developing countries; Capacity building in priority areas in S&T; Science Policy studies and advocacy; Direct studies and reports in interdisciplinary areas and information with particular reference to developing countries; Awareness enhancement, sensitization and assistance in evolving a shared objective in areas affecting the advancement and applications of S&T in the developing world.
Indian Science Congress Association, Kolkata

The Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA) owes its origin to the foresight and initiative of two British Chemists, Professor J.L. Simonsen and Professor P.S. MacMahon. The Association was formed with the following objectives:

(i) To advance and promote the cause of Science in India;

(ii) To hold an Annual Congress at a suitable place in India;

(iii) To publish proceedings, journals, transactions, etc.;

(iv) To popularize Science.

From a modest beginning, with 105 members and 35 papers communicated for reading at the first session, ISCA has grown into a strong fraternity with more than 15,000 members as on date. The number of papers communicated for reading has risen to about one thousand. There are at present fourteen sections and one committee.

Interaction with Foreign Scientific Academies/Associations

After independence, ISCA has been actively represented in various foreign scientific academies/ associations, namely British Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, French Academy of Sciences, Bangladesh Academy of Sciences, Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science, etc. with a view to have first hand knowledge on topics of mutual interest.

Introduction of Focal Theme

The year 1976 witnessed a significant departure in the trend of deliberations during the Congress. It was being felt for sometime that such a gathering of scientists covering a wide spectrum ought to be seized of national issues that have scientific and technological implications. In 1976, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan, the then General President of ISCA, introduced the Focal Theme of national relevance which is now discussed in every congress, during the annual session. This apart, several plenary sessions are organised around various facets of the Focal Theme in which scientists and technologists as well as policy makers and administrators interact with one another. ISCA has thus become a platform where members from different disciplines and from different walks of life can contribute to discussions on the Focal Theme.

Task Force

Another significant breakthrough was made in 1980-81, when the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, has set up permanent Task Force involving representatives of ISCA and chiefs of different agencies and voluntary organisations Chaired by Secretary, DST, as being responsible for follow-up action on various recommendations on the Focal Theme. Every year followup actions on recommendations made in the previous Science Congress are discussed at a general session organized by DST during the Science Congress. Through this process, the Indian Science Congress Association has been contributing to the development of Science in general and National Science Policy, in particular.

Young Scientists Award Programme

The Indian Science Congress Association introduced a programme for the benefit of young scientists from the 68th Session of the Indian Science Congress in 1981. The Programme enables young scientists to present their proposed research work with opportunities to exchange ideas in the relevant scientific problems with their counterparts and specialists. The ISCA Young Scientists Award has been enhanced from Rs.5,000/- to Rs.25,000/- starting with 93rd Indian Science Congress held in January 2006, to encourage talented young scientists.

Presentation of Papers

It was decided that generally most of the contributed papers, which are accepted on the basis of a careful screening to be done by the concerned Sectional Presidents with the help of some experts, will be presented mostly by way of posters from the 1998 Session. Further, to encourage scientists it was decided that at most two Prizes of Rs.1,000/- in cash along with a certificate be awarded to the best presentation in each section from the 1999 Session. This is now enhanced to Rs. 2,000/- from 93rd Indian Science Congress in 2006. Oral presentations of some selected contributed papers are also included in the programme of each section.

ISCA Chapters

There are at present 18 ISCA Chapters in different parts of India viz.Bangalore, Baroda, Bhubaneswar, Bhopal, Bodh-Gaya, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kanpur, Karnal, Kolkata, Mumbai, Nagpur, Patiala and Shillong.

Celebration

The National Technology Day and the 38th Engineer's Day were celebrated by The Indian Science Congress Association on 11th May, 2005 and 14th September 2005 respectively. World Environment Day on 6th June was celebrated by the ISCA Kolkata Chapter in the Federation Hall, Kolkata.

Collaborative Programme

  • A seminar on "Concept, Causes and Consequences of Tsunami" was also organized by the ISCA Kolkata Chapter.
  • The Association in collaboration with Jatiya Vigyan Parishad observed the birthday of the famous scientist Meghnath Saha on 6th October, 2005.

Participation in Fair

The Indian Science Congress Association, Kolkata participated in the Kolkata Book Fair held in January 2006.

Library Service

During the year under report, the Library of the Indian Science Congress Association subscribed many Indian and Foreign journals. The Library is open to all categories of members of the Association as well as school, college and university teachers.

Publications

The year under report witnessed a significant number of publications brought out by the Association. The publications brought out were: General Information - 93rd Indian Science Congress, ISCA Directory : 2005-2006, List of Office-Bearers & Sectional Committees for 2005-2006, Honorary Members, Donor & Life Members for 2005-2006, Members (With Voting Right) for 2005-2006, Annual Report : 2004-2005. Six issues of the bi-monthly journal Everyman's Science (Volume XXXX) were brought out.

Proceedings of the Ninety-third Annual Session of the Indian Science Congress Association and Synopses of the Presentations of ISCA Young Scientist Awardees for 2005 are under process of printing.

93rd Indian Science Congress

The 93rd Indian Science Congress was held at Hyderabad under the auspices of the Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University from January 3-7, 2006. The focal theme of the Congress was "Integrated Rural Development: Science and Technology". Nine Plenary Sessions devoted to different facets of the focal theme were organized.

Besides, there were Platinum Jubilee Lectures, Endowment Lectures, Contributory Papers, Poster Presentations and Young Scientist Award Competitions in 14 different sections viz. Agriculture and Forestry Sciences; Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences; Anthropological and Behavioural Sciences (including Archaeology and Psychology & Educational Sciences); Chemical Sciences; Earth System Sciences; Engineering Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Information and Communication Science & Technology (including Computer Sciences); Materials Science; Mathematical Sciences (including Statistics); Medical Sciences (including Physiology); New Biology (including Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology and Biotechnology); Physical Sciences; and Plant Sciences.

The twenty-four awardees were selected for the year 2005-2006. The awards were conferred to the respective recipients during the 93rd Indian Science Congress.
Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore

The Academy founded in 1934 by Sir CV Raman has completed seventy-one years of its existence. The main activities of the Academy continue to be publication of journals, identifying and electing outstanding scientists as Fellows and Associates, promoting the cause of science education in the country, etc.

Publications

This is the major activity of the Academy and eleven journals in diverse disciplines and varying frequencies are published. These are (a) Bulletin of Materials Science; (b) Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; (c) Journal of Biosciences; (d) Journal of Chemical Sciences; (e) Journal of Earth System Science; (f) Journal of Genetics; (g) Pramana (Journal of Physics); (h) Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences); (i) Resonance - Journal of Science Education; (j) Sadhana - Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences; (k) Current Science (fortnightly). Several special issues on topical themes are regularly published as part of the journals. Some of these were on chemical reactivity, sedimentary geology, electronic commerce, statistical physics, nanoscience and technology, ultrapure materials and astroseismology. These journals are managed by active scientists which ensures the quality of these journals both in content, production and printing. All the journals are available in full text form in the Internet thus increasing the visibility of the journals worldwide. Many journals are now adopting the online journal management system.

Annual Meetings

The mid-year scientific meeting in July 2005 was held in Bangalore and the regular meeting in November 2005 at Tiruchirappalli. The mid-year meeting was attended by about 200 Fellows and Associates. There were several lecture presentations on semi-popular topics, three special lectures and a public lecture on "The need for shared vision between academia and industry". The seventy-first Annual meeting (11-13 November 2005) held at Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli was attended by nearly 300 participants from outside, among others, contained two special lectures and two evening public lectures - one on "Science for our future: Personal reflections on doing science in India" and another on "Cancer causes and prevention". Two half-day symposia on "Physics and Chemistry of Materials" and "Genomic Landscape and Structure of the People of India" were held.

Discussion Meeting

A discussion meeting on "Machine learning" was held in September 2005 in Bangalore.

Science Education

To improve the quality of science education and its teaching several programmes including the following were continued to be undertaken by the Academy:

Summer fellowships: Two-month summer fellowships are awarded to bright students and motivated teachers to work with Fellows of the Academy on research-oriented projects. More than 250 summer fellowships were awarded during the year to students and teachers to work in several institutions in the country.

Participation of teachers in Academy meetings: From the Academy database of teachers, 100 teachers around the country were invited to participate in the two Academy meetings as guest participants to provide them opportunities to attend scientific programmes as well as to interact with Fellows.

Refresher courses for teachers: This important programme for teachers is designed to help motivated teachers to improve their knowledge and teaching skills. The course is of two-week duration and consists of lectures, discussion sessions and tutorial sessions. The following refresher courses were held during the year: (a) Instructional workshop on cryptology, Kochi; (b) Experimental Physics, Guwahati; (c) Workshop on foundations of physics, Durgapur; (d) Interdisciplinary approaches in biology, Hyderabad; (e) Earth system science, Bangalore; (f) Theoretical physics, Changanassery, Kerala; and (g) Mathematics -Probability, stochastic processes and applications, Kochi.

Lecture workshops for students/teachers: Academy arranges 2-3 day lecture programmes on chosen topics at selected college and university departments in the country for local students and teachers. Speakers include fellows and others from nearby institutions. During the year, these lecture workshops were held on different topics at Madurai Kamaraj University; University of Pune; Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi; Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam; Daulat Ram College, New Delhi; MS University of Baroda; CMS College, Kottayam; St. Pious College, Hyderabad; and Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College, Bangalore.

During the year, the Academy also brought out a Document on Scientific Values which contains the ethical guidelines for the Fellows of the Academy.
The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad

The 74th Annual Session of the Academy was held at Jaipur under the joint auspices of the University of Rajasthan (UoR) and the Birla Institute of Scientific Research (B.I.S.R.) from December 2-4, 2004. During the Annual Session, a National Symposium on "Science and Technology for Desert Development" was also organized. The Annual Session and Symposium were inaugurated by Hon'ble Prof. M.G.K. Menon, F.R.S., Former Minister for Science & Technology, Government of India.

Prof. M.G.K. Menon delivered the keynote address of the Symposium on "Science and Technology for Desert Development". A book on 'Biodiversity - Status and Prospects' edited by Prof. Pramod Tandon, Prof. Manju Sharma and Dr. Renu Swaroop, was also released by Prof. M.G.K. Menon. The book is a compilation of the scientific papers presented in the symposium on Biodiversity held at Shillong.

Scientific Sessions of Annual Session

A combined Session of Physical and Biological Sciences was held on December 3, 2004 in the University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Prof. Ashok Misra, Director, IIT-Bombay, Mumbai delivered the Presidential Address of Physical Sciences Section on 'Polymer Blends & Composites - Macro to Nanoscale' while Prof. Amit Ghosh, Director, IMTECH, Chandigarh delivered the Presidential Address of Biological Sciences Section on "Emergence and Re-emergence of Infectious Diseases : The Cholera Paradigm".

The invited speakers in the Section of Physical Sciences viz. Prof. S. Bhattacharya, Director, TIFR, Mumbai and Prof. B.K. Sharma, Department of Physics, UOR, delivered their lectures on "Seeing is believing" and "Magnetic Compton Scattering and Measurements of Momentum Distribution of Magnetic Electrons" respectively. The invited speakers in Biological Sciences Section were Prof. Raghavendra Gadagkar, IISc, Bangalore and Dr. Rukhsana Chowdhury, IICB, Kolkata.

Dr. Shipra Singh, Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad and Dr. Pragya Khanna, Department of Zoology, Govt. Degree College, Jammu were selected for Swarna-Jayanti- Puraskar for Best Paper presentation in the Sections of Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences respectively. The puraskar comprised certificate and cash prize of Rs.5000/= each.

Memorial Lecture Award

Prof. K. Kasturirangan, Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) and Director, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore delivered Prof. Meghnad Saha Memorial Award Lecture (2003) on "The Emerging Era of Space Science in India" on December 4, 2005 in the Auditorium of Birla Institute of Scientific Research, Jaipur. Prof. M.G.K. Menon chaired the award lecture. Prof. Menon, while introducing Prof. Kasturirangan highlighted the contributions of Prof. Kasturirangan in science, especially Space Science (Figure 12.1).



Figure 12.1 : Prof. Jai Pal Mittal, President reading the citation of Prof. Meghnad Saha Memorial Lecture Award conferred on Prof. K. Kasturirangan. Prof. M.G.K. Menon is also seen in the picture.

Emphasizing the significance of the India's forthcoming moon mission, former ISRO Chairman Prof. Kasturirangan said that Chandrayan-I would further the knowledge of the moon and establish India as a leading international space partner. "It's a wonder how so little is known about the nearest satellite to earth," he said.

Pointing out to some of the unique features of the mission, he said that it would map, for the first time, the surface of the moon in 3-D, using high-resolution remote sensing instruments in the visible, near infrared, low and high-energy X-ray regions. It would also study the distribution of various minerals and elemental chemical species covering the entire lunar surface and look for surface or sub-surface water on the moon.

Besides firmly establishing India as a leading international partner in space exploration, Prof. Kasturirangan said that it would also give an impetus to young scientists in the country. Also, it would help other countries, with similar socio-economic conditions, to launch their own space exploration programmes. Prof. Jai Pal Mittal, President of the Academy presented a medal, citation and a cash award of Rs.10,000/= to Prof. Kasturirangan for delivering the Prof. Meghnad Saha Memorial Award Lecture (2003).

Prof. B.K. Bachhawat Memorial Young Scientist Lecture Award (2002) was given to Dr. Pratima Srivastava, Scientist C, Pharmaco Kinetics and Metabolism Division, CDRI, Lucknow. She delivered the lecture on 'Heme Metabolism: An Innovative Approach to Harness Resistance Malaria on July 19, 2004.

Prof. N.R. Dhar Memorial Lecture Award (2003) was given to Prof. Girjesh Govil, DAE-BRNS Senior Scientist, Department of Chemical Sciences, TIFR, Mumbai. He delivered the lecture on 'Metabonomics: A New Frontier of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance' on July 29, 2004.

Human Resource Development

Science Communication Activities and National Science Day Celebration

(I) Science Extension Lectures at Allahabad - 11 lectures were held at Allahabad.

(II) Science Extension Lectures outside Allahabad - Lectures were held at Satna (M.P.), Jaunpur (U.P.), Deoria (U.P.) and Pratapgarh (U.P.):

A Vigyan Chaupal was organized at Abhayanand Educational Institute and Intermediate College, Shivdharia, a suburb situated at 30 km from Deoria on December 16, 2004. A large number of students and teachers as well as local people attended the Chaupal.

(III) Biological Sciences Workshop - The Academy organized a one-day "Biological Sciences Workshop" in the Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad on September 26, 2004 for the science students of +2 level of Allahabad Intermediate Colleges. About eighty (80) teachers of the colleges participated in the Workshop.

(IV) National Science Week - The Academy organized science quiz, debate, oration and exhibition both for local students of the intermediate colleges of Allahabad and the students of different districts of Uttar Pradesh. An essay contest was also organized for the students of Degree Colleges of Uttar Pradesh; and creative writing & painting contest as well as talent search (for Biological Sciences students) were organized only for the local (Allahabad) students of intermediate colleges.

The teachers accompanying the participating students from different districts of Uttar Pradesh were exposed to the excitement of science through a workshop on the eve of National Science Day.

Local Level Science Contests

  • 'Talent Search' (for Biological Sciences students of Class XI) was organized for the first time on February 12, 2005 in the Academy to select the best two students in Biological Sciences from the local Intermediate Colleges of Allahabad.
  • 'Science Creative Writing and Painting Contest' was organized on February 17, 2005 in the Academy. 70 students of local Schools participated in the contest. The topic was 'Fresh Water Scenario after 25 Years'.
  • The topics of Science Debate and Science Oration were "Genetically Modified Crops are Boon for Indian Agriculture" and "Present Day Life Style is Responsible for the Health Problems", respectively.
  • Science Essay Contest on Cyber Crime, for the students of Degree Colleges of Uttar Pradesh, was held on February 26, 2005 at Allahabad.
  • U. P. State Level Teachers' Workshop was held during February 24 - 27, 2005. 55 teachers from the intermediate colleges of 35 districts of U.P. participated in the workshop.

National Science Day Celebration

The National Science Day function was organized on February 28, 2005 in the Auditorium of the Academy. Prof. B.B.L. Saxena, a Senior Fellow of the Academy in 2005, was the Chief Guest. Prof. V.P. Kamboj, President of the Academy presided over the function. Prof. S.L. Srivastava, welcomed the guests and participants and gave a detailed account of the activities undertaken by the Academy on the eve of National Science Day.

The National Academy of Sciences, India - Science Teacher Award was given to Mrs. Meenambika Menon of Cambridge School, Noida by Prof. V.P. Kamboj, President of the Academy.

Platinum Jubilee Celebrations of the Academy

The National Academy of Sciences, India is celebrating its Platinum Jubilee in the year 2005. The celebration was initiated on January 22, 2005 with the lecture of Hon'ble Prof. M.G.K. Menon, F.R.S. and Honorary Fellow of the Academy on 'Excitement of Science (1905 - Miraculous Year of Einstein's Discoveries: The 100 Years since)' in the Auditorium of the Academy at Allahabad. Prof. Menon in his lecture said that persons in the limelight make momentous impact on the Society, but people like Einstein left indelible mark on the history irrespective of time. He also threw light on the life of Einstein and his discoveries and said that Einstein studied Brownian Motion and elaborated the wave nature of light. His famous theory of relativity was written in a lucid style with full of textual literature and simple equations. The famous theory was based on sheer observation sans any complicated equations and phenomenon.

Prof. Menon concluded his lecture with the example of the age old lullaby 'twinkle, twinkle little star' and described the star as a nuclear furnace. The other programmes proposed in this connection are:

  1. The main function of the Platinum Jubilee Celebrations would be held as a Symposium on 'Excitement of Science' on October, 6-7-2005 at Allahabad. The Symposium was inaugurated by His Excellency Hon'ble Prof A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, President of India on October 6, 2005 at Allahabad - the day coinciding with the birthday of Prof. Meghnad Saha, the Founder President of the Academy. Several distinguished scientists of the country participated in it.
  2. 21 'Satellite Symposia' to be organized in different parts of the country.
  3. 'NASI-Platinum Jubilee Lecture Series' - About 25 Lectures to be delivered by eminent scientists all over the country.
  4. Lectures in Colleges for (10+2) level Science students to ignite them for excitement in science by Fellows/Members spread throughout the country.
  5. Children Science Awareness Programme.
  6. Exposition of the three papers of Einstein viz. on Relativity, Brownian Motion and Photoelectric Effect which have revolutionized Science to students in Hindi, Bangla and English in the International Year of Physics (2005).
  7. Publication of 'Challenges before Indian Science in 21st Century'.
  8. Publication of the 'History of the Academy'.
  9. Issuance of Special Cover and special cancellation on the National Academy Sciences, India by Department of Posts.

Publications

The Academy published the following scientific periodicals as per schedule of publication -

  1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section A, Physical Sciences - (Quarterly) 2004, vol.74, parts II, III and IV, pages 368; 2005 vol. 75, part I, pages 76.
  2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B, Biological Sciences - (Quarterly) 2004, vol.74, parts II, III and IV, pages 231; 2005 vol. 75, part I, pages 71.
  3. National Academy Science Letters - (Bi-monthly) 2004, vol.27, nos. 3 to 12 pages 372; 2005; vol. 28, nos. 1-2, pages 60.
  4. Year Book 2005.
  5. Annual Report (2003-2004).
  6. Address of Prof. Amit Ghosh, Sectional President Biological Sciences of 74th Annual Session.
  7. Abstract of Papers of Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences Sections of 74th Annual Session.
 
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