Annual Report 1999-2000
Natural Resources Data Management System
The programme is working towards the upgradation
of the data management methodologies for drawing up area specific
developmental strategies, at district and sub-district level
using the concept of Geographic Information System (GIS).
The spatial data management technologies are being demonstrated
through a network of District level GIS centres spread over
10 different states of the country.
Concerted efforts are also being made to devolop indigenous
GIS software and decision support modules in the sectors of
Landuse planning, Water resource management, Energy management
and Infrastructure development. During the current year, new
areas of research like SAR interferometry, groundwater modelling
and geotechnical investigations of landslides have also been
initiated. Manpower development has been strengthened through
training /workshops in identified areas of research relevant
to the NRDMS programme.
District Database Centres
The following centres were set up in the current
- State centre at Gangtok, Sikkim.
- District centre at Gorakhpur and Deoria in U.P.
- District Centre at Jhunjunu district of Rajasthan.
The following centres were handed over to the
respective state governments for maintanence and utilisation
of the database for planning :
- District centres, at Mau & Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh
- District Centres at Mysore, Dakshina Kannada and Dharwad
- Technical backup is being extended to all the centres
to keep them upto date with regard to the developments in
NRDMS - Landslide studies
Responding to the incidences of landslides in the Himalayan
region during July- August 1998, wherein major damage to life
and property had occurred, the Department of Science and Technology
constituted a Steering Committee and three Task Forces to
provide a focus to the various agencies engaged in research
activities related to Landslides.
The first meeting of the Steering Committee was held in July
1999 and the following recommendations emerged :
- Setting up of a national database on landslides, through
Geological Survey of India.
- Setting up Geo-technical control units on pilot basis
at Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.
- Explore the possibility of setting up of Geo-technical
research unit with in the Border Road Organisation.
- Create core facilities to Wadia Institute of Himalayan
Geology to carryout geo-technical studies.
The three taskforces that were recommended to
be constituted are:
- Taskforce on Landslide Hazard Zonation by Geological Survey
- Taskforce on Geotechnical Investigations on Landslides
by Department of Science & Technology.
- Taskforce on Landuse zoning and regulations by Ministry
of Environment & Forests.
The taskforce on Geotechnical Investigations
by DST, selected the following five sites for detailed investigation
and monitoring of critical parameters:
- Chanmari Landslide - Sikkim
- Karshinga Landslide - Arunachal Pradesh
- Sher-Ka-Danda slide - in Nainital
- Powari landslide - Himachal Pradesh
- Nathpa landslide - Himachal Pradesh
To achieve this goal specific R&D projects
have been supported to the identified research and academic
Hydrology of Small Watersheds
The International Committee on Runoff defines a small watershed
as the region affecting the peak runoff by overland flow rather
than the channel flow. Consequently, the small watershed is
a sensitive zone to high intensity rainfall of short duration
and to the changes in landuse pattern, in contrast to the
larger watershed wherein the effect of channel flow or the
basin storage becomes very pronounced. Realising the importance
of the problem and gaps in understanding, a coordinated program
on "Hydrology of small watersheds" has been launched.
Under the program a pair of treated and untreated small watersheds
(about 10 sq. km.) have been selected in the following regions:
- Dudhi and Bewas watersheds of Tawa basin in Raisen district
of Madhya pradesh.
- Jojri and Jhanwar watersheds of Loni basin in Jodhpur
district of Rajasthan.
- Chandrabhaga Garh and Danda watersheds in Garhwal district
of Uttar Pradesh.
- Paykkara watershed in Attapady region of Palghat district
of Kerala and Rampatna watershed in Kolar district of Karnataka.
- Two microwatersheds in the Loktak lake basin of Manipur.
Outputs expected out of these projects are:
- Generation of Integrated database for water sector at
small watershed level for different Agro-climatic regions.
- Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) for watershed
- Scientific indices for impact assessment of watershed
- User manual for using the database and SDSSs.
The current status is as follows:
- Hydrometeorological instrumentation networks have been
set up to collect rainfall, streamflow, suspended sediment
yield, soil and water quality for long-term analysis in
all identified watersheds.
- Contour, slope, aspect, land use/land cover, drainage,
soil and hydro-geomorphology maps have been generated in
analog and digital forms at 1:50,000 scale. Collateral data
on socio-economy have also been collected.
- Hydrological models have been selected by the groups and
data files are getting prepared for test run of them.
New Initiatives - SAR
The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometric technology
is a newly emerging field having immense potentiality in detecting
minute earth surface displacements to an accuracy of millimeters,
when used in differential mode. This property is exploited
in monitoring the minute earth deformations / movements caused
by earthquakes and landslides, subsidence and glacial movement.
To promote and streamline the research activities, in different
National Institutions, DST initiated the InSAR programme.
An International Seminar on 'Recent Advances in Differential
SAR Interferometry and its Applications' was organised between
January 18-22,1999 at IIT Bombay, wherein 15 international
experts and more than 100 Indian participants representing
around 40 institutions participated. In this meet, the Indian
InSAR group was formed with the following objectives:
- Promotion of research on SAR interferometry
- Dissemination of information related to SAR programmes
- Organise National / International workshops, Seminars
- Bring-out News letter on InSAR activities
- Collection / development of software for SAR data processing
Two training programmes of four weeks duration
and an advanced training course were organised at CSRE, IIT-
Bombay, Mumbai. Nearly 60 scientists, drawn from various national
organisations were trained in SAR interferometry principles
and its applications.
Field experiments synchronous with
The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) is a cooperative
effort between US National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA), the US National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA),
Italian Space Agency (ASI) and the German Space Agency (DLR).
The planned 11day long mission aims at covering the entire
globe between 60o N to 58o S, for acquisition of interferometric
pairs useful in generating very accuarate Digital Elevation
Models (DEM). NRDMS is supporting the field experiments synchronous
with the shuttle pass to obtain accurate ground control points
of the selected test sites. The programme is being co-ordinated
by Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering, IIT Bombay
and the other participating institutions are, (i) National
Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, (ii) RRSSC, Department
of Space, GOI, Dehradun, (iii) Department of Earth Sciences,
Roorkee University, Roorkee, (iv) Centre for Earth Science
Studies, Trivandrum. The areas of study relates to earthquake,
landslide, glaciers and hilly terrain. In this experiment,
it is proposed to collect the required ground control points
and apply them for generation of accurate DEM. The DEM thus
generated would then be used as benchmark to monitor the minute
variation in the crustal deformation & landform dynamics.
Bio-Geo Database & Ecological
Modelling For Himalayas
Accelerated development of the Himalayan region is causing
great stress on this ecologically fragile and bio-diversity
rich ecosystem. NRDMS initiated this programme, to evolve
a sustainable development plan, in an integrated mode, with
a bearing on conservation of the rich bio-diversity of the
To concretise the approach, and areas of research to be taken
up, a brain storming session was organized during March 4-5,
1999. Three transects in U.P and H.P have been identified
for focussed research initiatives. The research areas include,
studies related to soil, water, land-use, geology, climate,
flora, fauna, and the socio-economic status of the local population.
Further, to concretise the action plan of the various participating
agencies, a task-force has been constituted by DST in December
1999 for a period of one year.
Highlight of the R&D Projects completed
during the year
Development Of An Effective Methodology For
Marine Pollution Monitoring In An Industrial Urban Environment
: A Remote Sensing Approach :
The study attempts to relate the pollutant levels of the water
with the satellite derived data. Water sample from Thane creek
was analysed and compared with satellite DN values using four
standard statistical models. The study has indicated, (i)
DN values indicate fairly good linear relation with pollution
level. (ii) Chebysher Transformation approach indicate non-linear
relation and an improved degree of correllation was seen when
TSS and turbidity in multiple regression model. (iii) Chromaticity
technique was inconsistant for highly turbid waters. Ten research
publications and 4 M.Sc. / M.Tech. thesis were produced. Study
suggests, better estimation with improvement in spectral resolution.
Integrated Landscape Assessment and Evolve Perspective Landuse
Planning for Development Suitability of Madurai Metropolitan
Twentyone firkas (land unit) have been studied around Madurai
City. This study documents the changes in the landuse pattern
and analyses the urban sprawl for 3 decades using satellite
derived information. The spatial information thus generated
have been used in a GIS platform to provide site suitability
map for development of the fringe areas of this developing
GIS Database for Planning and Monitoring of Regional Road
Thirteen districts around Mumbai, within a radius of 250 Km.
has been studied for Regional road network analysis. In this
project the information on the roads available with the PWD
and other government agencies like the Bureau of Economics
and statistics, Panchayat office, State Police Department
etc. have been collected and computerised to create the spatial
database. The database thus created has been used effectively
for (a) Accessibility & connectivity analysis (b) Network
improvement (c) Traffic analysis (d) Route planning and (e)
Economic and Financial Analysis. The project outputs have
been demonstrated to the PWD officials and practical suggestions
of the PWD department have been attempted in the project.
Natural Resource Survey for Integrated Development Using Remote
Sensing Technology in Mansa District, Punjab :
The thematic information related to Landuse, geomorphology,
drainage etc have been generated using the satellite images
and have been used in conjunction with other spatial information
derived from published information and attribute information
taken from all the line departments to create the Spatial
database of the district. This database has been further used
in GIS analysis to create the action plan map of the district.
The report contains 59 block wise maps generated on all themes,
several tables and recommendations to be adopted for developmental
Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping using Remote Sensing and
GIS Technologies in te Bhagirathi Valley in Garhwal Himalayas
A qualitative weighted rating system has been adopted for
landslide hazard zonation, on the basis of relative importance
of causative factors and field knowledge. Five landslide hazard
classes have been delineated for the study area and further
the classification has been validated using the data collected
during the fieldwork.
Based on the recommendations of the mid-term
technical review of the Project activities during November
- December 1998, the duration of the Project was extended
by a year from November 1999 up to December 2000. The following
activities were completed during 1999-2000:
Integrated data model
An integrated data model was developed using the end-user
need assessment in the four sectors of water conservation,
land use, energy management and infrastructure location. The
data model was mapped into a physical schema for the construction
of GIS. Sample GIS applications were implemented for pilot
demonstration at Kolar.
Software development - GRAM GIS upgradation
The GRAMNET module for location / allocation of resources
and the QUERY module for querying on geographical data on
a spatial mode were integrated with the core GRAM++ package.
This facilitates analysis, querying and display of data directly
from GRAM++ environment. The package is now being tested and
evaluated. Two training workshops were organized in April
and May, 1999 on GRAM++ for selected participants.
GIS design module (GEOAPP)
A software module - GEOAPP - helps to create and maintain
the entity-relationship based conceptual geo-data model for
the GIS databases at the district centers. Designed to update
any existing geo-data model with minimal effort, the module
provides a set of drawing and report generating tools for
quick reference of the end-users.
DREAM data entry module
A data entry module - DREAM (Data Retrieval, Entry, And Management)
- has been developed to help construct NRDMS databases at
the district GIS centers. Built around the WINDOW based MS-ACCESS
package, the module facilitates easy construction of NRDMS
database on a pre-defined database structure.
SDSS for water use - GRAM++/SWAT interface
An interface has been developed between the GRAM++ GIS software
package and the hydrological model based SWAT software module
for exchange of data files. The exchange facilitates estimation
of surface water run-off, silt yield, potential crop yield,
and biomass in a micro-watershed utilizing the SWAT module
by directly using data sets from GRAM++ package . A module
to help delineate micro-watershed boundaries from digital
elevation models has been added to GRAM++. The function when
used in conjunction with the GRAM++/SWAT interface would help
to model micro-watersheds and draw up local water budget.
The interface is being built into the spatial decision support
system (SDSS) for water management at district level.
Area development profile
Digital data sets (1:50,000) obtained from various survey
agencies like Survey of India, National Atlas & Thematic
mapping Organisation, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land
Use Planning, India Meteorological Department, Census of India,
State Remote Sensing Centres were processed to bring them
to a common format so as to construct integrated databases
for the pilot districts of Bankura and Kolar. To bridge the
data gaps encountered in the working of the SDSS, selected
watersheds in the pilot districts of Bankura and Kolar were
instrumented for generation of data through primary survey.
Experimental digital elevation models (DEMs) were developed
for Bankura and Kolar using synthetic aperture radar interferometric
data to test the efficacy of such data and assess their accuracy.
The integrated database is proposed to be used for preparation
of development profiles for the selected study areas.
To facilitate training of the scientists & staff of district
level GIS centers, the zilla panchayats and line departments,
a preliminary design of the GIS tutor has been drawn up and
a prototype developed around GRAM++ GIS package. The tutor
is designed to teach the principles of GIS using applications
developed on GRAM++. Presently, the tutor is being refined
Consultants & fellowships
Five consultants from Australia, South Africa, UK, USA, and
Yugoslavia provided expert consultancy to the project. Eight
scientists were deputed to the Netherlands and the USA on
training fellowships during the year.
Creation of NRDMS website
To demonstrate / promote the activities of NRDMS
and share the experiences within the scientific community
across the globe and open new avenues for information exchange,
a website is under development. It is planned to make it operational
by March 2000.
For Science & Technology
The scheme has numerous objectives aimed at
upliftment of social-economic conditions of various states
through application of Science & Technology. DST effort,
though catalytic, had served a very important purpose of establishing
State S&T structures and gearing up these structures to
assume the role of a prime mover in planning and implementing
S&T activities. State S&T Councils and DST are now
initiating programmes where resources and technologies are
being pooled together to have visible impact. The efforts
initiated in the past two - three years have made some headway
in this direction.
The focus now is on systematic identification of location
specific problems and their solution through S&T inputs.
Efforts are being made to demonstrate successful projects
of one State S&T Council in other States for suitable
modifications. The successful projects of Central S&T
Agencies are also encouraged for demonstration.
During the year, State S&T Councils were encouraged and
facilitated to formulate proposal to study and addross location
specific problems through S&T intervention.
The main activities during 1999-2000 are enumerated below:
DST has supported installation
of micro-hydel power generation units based on cross flow
turbine technology developed by Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore with DST support at Manipur, Nagaland and Sikkim.
These projects are in various stages of implementation.
As a part of department's efforts to encourage replication/
demonstration of successful technologies developed by a State
S&T Council in other States, initiatives were also taken
to support setting up demonstration pollution control Units
in Cupola furnaces at UP and Bihar. The effort to encourage
replication of solar passive housing technology and air pollution
control device for cupola furnace have resulted in supporting
such units at Manipur and U.P. & Bihar respectively. Setting
up of demonstration solar passive unit at Manipur is progressing
Studies/ Surveys of interest to States:
DST (GOI) is supporting studies/ surveys to identify location
specific problems in respective States. The projects received
from Assam State S&T Council on " Identification
of location specific problems for S&T intervention"
and "Survey documentation and validation of technologies
for fishing crafts" from Manipur State S&T Council
are progressing satisfactorily.
Participation of State Councils in Exhibitions:
A Workshop-cum-Exhibition on " Strategy
& Initiative for Transformation of Rural areas" (SRISTI)
is being planned. The exhibition would give an opportunity
to demonstrate successful development oriented technologies
developed by various State S&T councils and Central S&T
Agencies and facilitate horizontal transfer of technology
amongst State S&T Councils.
State Council Meetings :
At the State level, DST participated in the
General Body/ Executive Committee meeting of State S&T
Councils of West Bengal, UttarsPraeesh, Punjab, Harlan, Kerala,
Tamil Nadu, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh etc. DST also participated
in State S&T Plan Working Group discussions organised
by the Planning Commission for S& T allocation for various
Support to S&T Secretariats :
Support has been continued for S&T Secretariats
of 25 State S&T Councils. Special efforts made during
the previous years to persuade Nagaland and Pondicherry State
S&T Council to strengthen their secretariat have been
successful and support has been provided to both the councils.
This secretariat support has been critical in facilitating
State S&T Councils in Planning, formulating and implementing
S&T activities/ programmes at State level.
The project on Training/ Orientation programmes for officials
of State S&T Councils is progressing following a computer
based training approach with tutorials and quizzes incorporated
into the material. The first face -to face Training Programme
is planned to take place during the year.
Experience Sharing :
A Regional Meeting of State S&T Councils/
Departments of Northern Region was organised during October12-13,1999.
A number of areas such as food preservation, Biofertilisers,
solid waste management, water management, aquaculture, bio
fertilisers, etc. were identified for mutual cooperation.
Regional Meeting of State S&T Councils/ Departments of
North Eastern Region is planned during March 2000.
In order to promote horizontal exchange of information
between State S&T Councils, seven issues of new version
of State S&T Newsletter SNAPSHOT has been brought out.
It has been proposed to augment the print media with the electronic
media and a web page for State S&T Councils would be set
up by June 2000. State S&T Councils have also been equipped
with E-mail/Internet facility.