Annual Report 1999-2000
Mission Mode Projects
Sugar Technology Mission
The Mission mode project under Sugar Production Technologies
aims towards sharper and focussed technological upgradation
in selected sugar factories to accomplish, interalia, the
cost effectiveness of sugar production through improvement
in plant efficiency, energy saving etc. In addition to the
above, the focus is also on improving the capital output ratio
through optimisation and identification of user friendly technologies.
The Sugar Technology Mission has so far completed upgradation
surveys in respect of 23 factories and has submitted Detailed
Project Reports (DPR) in respect of 19 factories. On the basis
of project reports and financial appraisal by Financial Institutions,
the following factories have already been sanctioned SDF loan
at 6% rate of interest:
- Shri Vighnahar SSK Ltd., Junnar, Maharashtra
- Ajinkyatara SSK Ltd., Satara, Maharashtra
- DSM Sugar, Rauzagaon, Barabanki, U.P.
- Motilal Padampat Udyog Ltd., Majhaulia, Bihar
- Riga Sugar Company Ltd., Riga, Bihar
- Vishnu Sugar Mills Ltd., Gopalganj, Bihar
- Upper Doab Sugar Mills, Shamli, U.P.
- R.B.N.S. Sugar Mills, Lahksar, U.P.
The project implementation work in respect of
above factories is in progress.
During the year (1999-2000) the proposal for technology upgradation
of the following factories have been prepared by STM and are
under consideration by Department of Sugar and Edible Oils
for funding from Sugar Development Fund (SDF):
- Pratappur Sugar Mills, Pratappur, U.P.
- Sakthi Sugars Ltd., Sakthi Nagar, Tamil Nadu
- Godavari Sugar Mills Ltd., Sameerwadi, Karnataka
The Detailed Project Reports for technological
upgradation of the following factories have been completed
and are under submission to Financial Institutions for appraisal:
- Padmashri Dr.V.K.Patil SSK Ltd., Pravaranagar, Maharashtra
- E.I.D. Parry (India) Ltd., Pugalur, Tamil Nadu.
- Mawana Sugar Works Ltd., Mawana, (U.P.)
The preparation of DPR for technology upgradation
scheme for the following factories is under completion:
- Vishwasrao Naik SSK Ltd., Yeshwantnagar, Maharashtra.
- Terna Sethkari SSK Ltd., Ternanagar, Maharashtra
- Shakumbari Sugar & Allied Industries Ltd., Saharanpur,
In addition to the above, the site survey for
technology upgradation of Shree Talala Taluka Sahakari Khand
Udyog Mandli Ltd., Talala (Gujarat) has also been completed.
1.2 Trials of New Technologies
The Sugar Technology Mission has already taken assessment
of about 17 new technologies and systems for the purpose of
trial in commercial sugar factories. The majority of new technologies
are being tried on plant scale.
i) The following four new technologies after successful trials
are under replication in different sugar factories. These
new technologies are:
- Separate Clarification of Vacuum Filtrate.
- Thin Film Sulphur Burner for continuous generation of
SO2 to achieve satisfactory juice clarification parameters.
- Integrated Clarification Control System for PLC based
automatic control for juice purification, better removal
- Syrup treatment system for production of superior quality
ii) Follow-up activities continue in respect
of trials and performance evaluation of following new technologies
in various sugar factories :
- Low Pressure Extraction (LPE) System
- Use of Membranes for micro filtration and ultra-filtration
of cane juice.
- NIR Technique for on-line assessment of sugar content
in sugarcane and sugar house products.
- Automation Control for Pan Boiling
- Short Retention Clarifier
- DRP Process
iii) In addition to the above, a new type of
massecuite filter has been commissioned for the purpose of
trials at M/s. Sakthi Sugars Ltd., Sakthinagar, Tamil Nadu.
iv) Development of cost and energy effective alternate material
components for use in Sugar Industry is under progress at
Regional Research Laboratory, Bhopal.
v) An Agreement has been signed with Godavari Sugar Mills
Ltd., for implementation of Enterprises Resource Planing (ERP)
System for maintenance management and other control functions
in a sugar mill. The first installment of TDA has already
been released to the factory for implementation of the project.
Fly Ash Mission (FAM)
Fly Ash Mission, a Technology Project in Mission Mode
(TPMM) was approved by Government of India during August 1994
for a duration of 4 years. The duration of the mission has
been subsequently extended upto March 2000.
The broad objective of Fly Ash Mission is to build confidence
in Fly Ash Disposal / Utilisation Technologies through "Technology
Demonstration Projects" towards large-scale utilisation
& safe disposal.
As on March 31, 1999, 55 Technology Demonstration Projects
had been approved / commissioned. Out of these, 16 were completed
(including 1 project being pursued by the agency itself).
Progress during the current year 1999-2000
(upto November '99)
Currently thrust is being put on the following activities
the salient features / achievements are given below:
i) Monitoring, Facilitation and Steering
the Ongoing Technology Demonstration Projects
Towards Successful Completion
22 meetings of Project Monitoring Committees / Experts Groups
have been held to monitor and guide the on going projects.
Some of the salient highlights of other projects are given
- Pilot plant for dense phase conveying of fly ash / bottom
ash has been installed at NTPC -Dadri. Initial trials have
started. The developed process would convey fly ash slurry
with 30-45% concentration as compared to 10-20% being practiced
currently. It would reduce water requirement, energy consumption,
wear & tear of the system and discharge water management
at Ash Ponds.
- Design of dry fly ash collection and bagging pilot plant
at Badarpur Thermal Power Station has been completed and
the offers have also been received from equipment suppliers.
It would demonstrate first time in the country that segregated
fly ash could be collected, bagged and made available for
- More than 1200 samples of agricultural produce, soil,
water and plant parts have been tested at IOP, Bhubaneswar
for radioactivity and heavy metals. Balance of about 150
samples is in final stages of analysis.
- Nutritional quality analysis of agricultural produce grown
on fly ash treated soils has made significant progress at
National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad. Chemical analysis
has been completed for about 75% of samples. Samples of
3 crops to be harvested during December '99, January '2000
and February '2000 are also to be tested. Biological tests
by feeding the grain to test group of rats / mice are in
- Fly ash brick durability tests project has been commissioned
at four laboratories. Procedure and protocol to be followed
has been finalized after detailed discussions in the experts
meetings as no directly applicable standard and procedure
is available either in India or abroad. Test facilities
have been upgraded at CFRI-Dhanbad and ERDA - Vadodara.
CBRI-Roorkee and RRL-Bhopal are in the process of finalizing
the details. Accelerated durability test would be done for
500 days to compare performance of fly ash bricks (produced
through different technological routes) with clay fly ash
ii) Finalisation of Reports of Completed
Draft reports of 7 projects have been discussed
in the task force / experts meetings / national workshops
and are under finalisation.
iii) Deliberation on Findings and Recommendations of Projects
in Experts Meetings / National Workshops for the Finalisation
In addition to task force and experts meetings
for discussions of findings / draft reports of completed projects,
national workshops/ seminars were organized at CFRI-Dhanbad,
IIT-Kanpur and IISc-Bangalore. Two more seminars are being
planned to discuss the draft reports of project executed by
RRL-Bhubaneswar and CBRI-Roorkee on the subjects of "Reclamation
of Ash Ponds for Human Settlement" and "Sintered
Fly Ash aggregates for use in building construction, roads
and embankments and pozzolanic aggregates for manufacture
of cement" respectively.
iv)Dissemination of Information through
Meetings, Personal Interaction and Participation in Workshops/
Nine workshops / seminars have been participated in, for presentation
/ dissemination of information. In addition, a number of experts
meetings and one to one meetings have been held to share and
v) Facilitation of Multiplier Effects
and undertaking "Confidence Building" exrecise /
discussions with Potential Users
Detailed discussions have been held with 4 cement manufacturers
for use of fly ash in cement manufacture, 6 potential users
to use fly ash in concrete, 8 potential brick manufactures,
10 existing fly ash brick manufacturers for the measures to
improve quality of fly ash brick, about 10 potential users
of fly ash bricks / blocks including Chief Engineers / Superintending
Engineers of three circles of PWD- Delhi, 2 agencies for use
of fly ash in road & embankments and a few farmers for
agriculture applications of fly ash. These have resulted into
a number of multiplier effects. Some of these are:
- Fly ash bricks have been specified by PWD -Delhi in the
tender documents for the forth-coming construction of school
buildings. The immediate requirement would be about 10 lacs
fly ash bricks.
- PWD-Delhi and DDA are using fly ash in lieu of soil for
construction of embankments of flyover bridges wherever
borrowed material is required.
- DDA has agreed in principle to use fly ash based concrete
in one of the flyover bridges. This would save about 25
- 30 % cement and would make fly over bridge elements sleek
and lighter. Thus additional savings would be achieved due
to lower dead weight on the foundations. CRRI is working
out the technical specifications.
- DVB has decided to put up an automated plant to manufacture
2 lacs fly ash bricks per day. In addition two smaller plants
are being put up by DVB of 10,000 fly ash brick per day
- About eight entrepreneurs are in advanced stage of discussions
with Fly Ash Mission for setting up of fly ash brick plants
in different parts of the country such as at Talchar, Calcutta,
Kota, Ghaziabad, Delhi, Agra, Nashik, etc.
- IFFCO is also evaluating the alternate technologies, in
consultation of Fly Ash Mission for setting up a facility
for production of 1 lacs bricks per day.
- Mr. S. N. Patro, Co-ordinator, Orissa Environmental Programme
is considering initiation of "quality control and training
programme for fly ash bricks manufacturers" in the
state of Orissa in association with Fly Ash Mission, TIFAC
- IFFCO, Phulpur, U.P. has agreed to transport fly ash,
free of cost to farmers' fields in their vicinity for use
- Lifting of CPWD ban on use of fly ash based cement in
reinforced concrete. CPWD has agreed to reconsider their
decision of mid 80's (reconfirmed in mid 90's) which restricted
use of fly ash based cement in reinforced concrete. A meeting
of all expert National Institutes was held by Fly Ash Mission
along with CPWD and process has been initiated to arrive
at consensus of National Research Laboratories to facilitate
and enable CPWD to withdraw their above said circular. Towards
this a few accelerated tests are being planned at different
laboratories with Indian fly ashes to supplement the recent
experience of Indian laboratories and users with latest
fly ashes. Worldwide fly ash blended cements have already
been recognized as superior materials as compared to ordinary
vi)Updating of BIS Standards
related to Fly Ash and preparation of new Standards wherever
Six sub-groups of experts of Fly Ash Mission are reviewing
the existing standards for updating and identifying the areas
in which additional standards are required to be prepared.
The subgroups are:
- Characterisation, terminology, handling & transportation,
- Bricks/ blocks
- Geotechnical applications.
- Agricultural applications.
Industrial products / applications would be taken up individually.
Up date of BIS 3812 "Classification of Fly Ash"
prepared by Fly Ash Mission has been issued for wide circulation
by BIS for comments.
vii) Preparation of
Standards and Protocols for Testing of Fly Ash for Agricultural
No standards/ protocols are available in this regard. It is
During execution of technology demonstration projects under
the Thrust Area "Agriculture Related Studies and Applications"
analysis of fly ash was started with employing protocols /
standards available for testing of soil and other agricultural
inputs. These protocols required some modifications due to
the fact that fly ash is a different material as compared
to soils. The protocols were modified based on contextual
information available in the literature and the past experience
of Indian Agriculture scientists / experts. These modifications
were adopted during Fly Ash Mission projects and further experience
/ data / validation was achieved.
Based on the above an experts group of Fly Ash Mission is
working on preparation of standards and protocols for analysis
of fly ash for agricultural applications.
viii) Procesing of "Specification
for use of Fly Ash in Roads & Embankments" with Indian
Road Congress for approval and adoption as National Standards
The specifications were prepared and submitted to IRC about
a year back. These have been discussed in number of meetings
/ committees of IRC and additional information /clarifications
have been provided. The revised document has been cleared
by their sub-technical committee and is due for consideration
by technical committee. The approval is being expedited. On
approval IRC would issue it as a national standard.
ix) Upgrading of Fly Ash Characterisation
and Utilisation Facilities/Capabilities at various Laboratories
in the Country to establish a network of Fly Ash Centres to
Extend Guidance and Support to Fly Ash Producers/Users for
its gainful utilisation and safe disposal
Brochures regarding facilities and expertise available at
13 out of the 25 laboratories dispersed across the country
identified for upgradation of facilities/developing expertise,
with marginal investments in the area of fly ash. In addition
draft brochures have been received from four and balance is
being expedited. Facility upgradation was undertaken primarily
at four laboratories and that has been completed.
x) Promotion of Fly Ash Utilisation
A gazette notification dated September 14, 1999 has been brought
out by the Ministry of Environment & Forests promoting
use of flyash and discouraging use of topsoil for construction/
brick production activities. This is a result of the concerted
efforts of Fly Ash Mission and its associate agencies.
This notification makes it mandatory for all brick/ tile or
block manufacturers within radius of 50 km of Thermal Power
Plants to use atleast 25% of ash in their products; Thermal
Power Plants to make available free & hassle free ash;
and the potential user agencies to include flyash & its
products in their respective material & price schedules.
xi) Zero Base Studies on Fly Ash
Generation and Utilisation in the Country
To arrive at reliable data and information regarding fly
ash generation, disposal and utilisation in the country, five
zero based zonal studies were commissioned to collect the
data/information directly from power producers, users as well
as potential users. Draft reports from all the 5 zones have
been received and are being reviewed by experts towards finalisation.
Comments of some of the experts/agencies have been received
and others are being expedited.
Advanced Composites Mission (ACM)
The Advanced Composites Mission (ACM) was launched with a
focus to enhance the utilisation and application of composites
as important performance materials in various sectors such
as railways, automobiles, construction, marine, bio-medical
etc. The Mission aims at developing certain critical strategic
inputs in terms of raw materials, design capability, skilled
manpower and testing devices. It attempts to bring together
the research institutions & industries towards development
and commercialization of composite technologies. Towards its
objectives, the Advanced Composites Mission focuses on:
- Development and commercialization of select composite
- Promotion of composite applications (process equipment,
transportation sector, bio-medical devices, marine operations,
- Improving industry-laboratory linkages for technology
development and transfer
- Providing soft financial assistance to industries on
repayable basis for projects on composites technology
The Advanced Composites Mission has been an
experiment to bring about a culture of technology development
towards commercialization especially for the technology starved
SMEs. The Mission has attempted to source the knowledge from
various centres of excellence across the country and brought
the industries closer for technology absorption, development
& dissemination. The attributes such as attractive scheme
of financial assistance (upto 50% of total project cost),
technological risk sharing, an effective programme management
and knowledge-based project monitoring by experts coupled
with the market intervention by reaching to the user agencies
have all helped the Mission to record its achievements and
arrive at a threshold.
New Projects Initiated (1999-2000)
The Mission has been successful in launching 18 projects with
active participation by the industry. There has been an intense
interaction with Indian Railways (Railway Board, RDSO, ICF,
RCF, CLW), CPWD (South Zones & TAD Cell, New Delhi), BMTPC-New
Delhi, ASRTU (Ministry of Surface Transport), BIS-New Delhi,
Bajaj Auto Ltd.-Pune, TELCO-Pune, EIL, WCL, BHEL, ONGC, Department
of Telecom etc. towards product standardization, testing,
approval & acceptance for wider induction.
On-Going Projects : Achievements during 1999-2000
Some of the salient achievements during the current year include
The project launched at M/s Permali Wallace Ltd., Bhopal with
technology support from RRL, Bhopal has successfully developed
FRP gear-case for diesel locomotives. The prototypes were
field-tested extensively. A development order for inducting
60 gear-cases for diesel locomotives has been received from
the Railway Board. 30 gear-cases have been fabricated, inspected
& certified by RDSO at Permali Wallace, Bhopal & they
are now ready for despatch. Design of FRP gear-case for electric
locomotives has been finalized & approved by CLW; fabrication
of the mould is currently underway.
Jute-Coir Composite Boards
The project launched in partnership with M/s. Duroflex
Ltd., Bangalore has successfully developed boards with oriented
jute face veneer and coir/rubber wood waste inside. The performance
of jute-coir composite boards has proven superior to plywood
& MDF boards. Detailed evaluation of the jute-coir board
samples have been carried out by RDSO & ICF for their
applications as berth backings in railway coaches; the results
conform to the railways' requirements. Evaluation of panel
& flush doors is currently in progress for acceptance
by CPWD, DoT and others.
Carbon Fibre Composites for Orthopaedics
The project was launched in 1998 with M/s S H Pitkar Orthotools
Pvt. Ltd., Pune. The project deals with a fairly advanced
technology for developing lighter external fixators, made
of polyethersulphone reinforced with carbon fibre, for certain
advantages like high strength-to-weight ratio, transparency
to X-ray etc. Baby rings, foot rings, osteotomes, gauges etc.
have been developed successfully. Commercial production of
external fixators has commenced & the products are being
marketed in India & abroad.
FRP Axial Flow Fans
The project aiming at improving fan design to provide optimum
efficiency suitable for specific air-flow and system pressure
applications was launched in 1998 at M/s. Parag Fans &
Cooling Systems Ltd., Indore with technology support from
IIT-Mumbai. The aerodynamic & mechanical design &
fabrication of 5 types of fans for cooling towers, mine ventilation,
textile humidification, radiator cooling for diesel locomotives
& air heat exchangers have been completed. Performance
of cooling tower, humidifier, mine ventilation & radiator
cooling fans has already been tested. An appreciable efficiency
differential has been achieved over conventional fans with
FRP Pultruded Profiles
The project on pultruded FRP sections with technology support
from NCL, Pune and collaboration with M/s. SUCRO Filters Pvt.
Ltd., Pune was launched in 1998 to develop & commercialise
products like gratings, solid rods for electrical insulation,
cable trays, ladders, etc. High pultrusion speed (1.0-1.5
m/Ministry) for various FRP profiles by improved curing using
3-catalyst system has been achieved. Flame retardancy as per
international standards (UL-94V0) for off-shore application
has also been established. FRP gratings have been supplied
to Alfa Laval, High Explosive Factory, Thermax etc. and a
proposal has been submitted to ONGC for partial replacement
of steel gratings for offshore platforms.
Composites Design Centres
In active collaboration with industry/user agencies, the Mission
has set up two composite design centres (CDCs). These are
the Composite Design Centre at RV College of Engineering,
Bangalore and Composite Technology Centre (COMPTEC) at IIT,
Chennai. CDC-Bangalore has successfully designed and fabricated
more than 180 composite products for housing and construction
applications. The technology for FRP door has been transferred
to eight industries for commercial production.
COMPTEC at IIT-Madras has been providing technical help and
guidance to industries. 37 composite study reports and 40
composite product design modules have been prepared and are
being disseminated to the industries on payment basis.
Vacuum Forming Press for Composites
The project launched in 1998 in partnership with M/s.
Tecnico Engineering Pvt. Ltd. and HAL, Bangalore, aims at
developing a low cost vacuum forming press as an alternative
to the expensive autoclave process, thus addressing the technology
needs for SMEs. The prototype press is currently being fabricated
& would be ready soon.
Metal Matrix Composite
Components for Automobiles
MMC components for automobiles are being developed in the
project instituted in collaboration with RRL, Bhopal and Rasmi
Die Castings Limited, Secunderabad. Under the project on the
development of MMC components for automobiles, the cylinder
block & brake-drum prototypes developed for two-wheeler
were handed over to a leading Indian auto manufacturer for
Components for Railway Coaches
The project, launched in collaboration with
M/s. Fabtech Industries & CGCRI, Calcutta in 1999 aims at
developing jute-glass fibre composite components such as glass
& louvre shutters for windows, lavatories in railway coaches
and seat-cum-back rest. Jute-glass SMC laminates have been fabricated
and tested at CGCRI conforming to railways' requirements. The
laminates have also been fabricated at the industry & sent
to RDSO for their detailed evaluation. Prototype louvre shutter
assembly for railway coaches is currently being fabricated.
Development of Composite Artificial
Limbs for Physically Handicapped
The project has been launched in partnership
with M/s. Mohana Orthotic & Prosthetics Centre, Chennai
with the technology support from MIT, Chennai. The project aims
at developing endoskeleton (below the knee) artificial limb
by resin transfer moulding (RTM). This would result in cheaper
indigenous hi-tech artificial limbs compared to imported ones.
Development of Composite CNG
Cylinders for Automobiles
The project with M/s. Strategic Engineering
Pvt. Ltd. (SEPL), Chennai in technical collaboration with
MIT, Chennai has been approved. The project aims at designing
of high-pressure composite cylinders for storage of compressed
natural gas. The compressed refill cylinders for CNG will
help in adhering to the clean air requirements for vehicles
by using alternate fuels.
The project with M/s. Indore Composites Pvt.
Ltd., aims at developing FRP armoured optical fibre cables for
communication purposes, the major user segments being the Department
of Telecommunication and Railways. These cables would have added
features like rodent resistance, termite resistance, bullet
resistance and long span length (300 metres) for aerial cables
in a cost-effective manner. The aerial cable would be completely
dielectric, which will protect the cable against any danger
Development of FRP Armoured Optical