" for the discovery of quasicrystals "
|Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel|
|Born. 1941, Tel Aviv, Israel|
In Physiology or Medicine
" for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" and the other half to Ralph M. Steinman "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity "
|Bruce A. Beutler||Jules A. Hoffmann||Ralph M. Steinman|
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA
Molecular and Cellular Biology Institut
|Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA|
|Born. 1957, Chicago, IL, USA||Born. 1941, Echternach, Luxembourg|| |
Born. 1943, Montreal, Canada
Died. 30 September 2011
" for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"
|Saul Perlmutter||Brian P. Schmidt||Adam G. Riess|
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
|Australian National University, Weston Creek, Australia||Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA|
|Born. 1959, Champaign-Urbana, IL, USA||Born. 1967, Missoula, MT, USA||Born. 1969, Washington, DC, USA|