Internet of Things (IoT) as defined by the ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a dynamic global network infrastructure with self configuring capabilities based on standard and inter operable communication protocols where physical and virtual things have identities, physical attributes and virtual personalities use intelligent interface and seamlessly integrated into the information network. IoT is the inter networking of physical devices, vehicles, buildings and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data . In 2013 the Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things (IoTGSI) defined the IoT as the infrastructure of the information society . The traditional fields of embedded system, wireless sensor networks, control system, automation systems are together interconnected to form the IoT. That means the internet of things builds over the revolutionary success of mobile and internet network [9, 10]. Even a few decades back, nobody could have imagined having a video chat with their families. Nowadays, it is merely a child’s play. All of this is due to the wide availability of internet and creation of devices with Wi-Fi abilities. Technology costs are going down, and smart-phones are capable of doing almost anything with their inbuilt features and apps. What we have till now is “Internet of Computers (IoC)” and it is gradually growing in size. According to Gartner’s study, “the world will be a more deeply and intimately connected place, with an estimated 7.3 billion tablets, PCs and Smartphone’s, by the end of this decade. By the year 2020, this massively connected system is likely to expand at even more rapid rate to 26 billion connected devices around the globe.” Thus, emerging the huge scope of Internet of Things (IoT). This so called IoT is sitting on a perfect storm. And the storm revolves around five basic areas Sensor technologies, Local processing, Networking models, Data Science and Predictive Technologies, Machine Learning and Security.
Basically, this is the idea of fundamentally interfacing any gadget to the Internet (and/or to each other). This incorporates everything from cellphones, coffee machines, dish-washers, earphones, lights, wearable gadgets and just about whatever else anybody can consider. This likewise applies to parts of machines, for instance an engine of a plane or the drill of an oil rig. One of the biggest paradigms behind this trend is the Internet of Things (IoT) which foresees a world permeated with embedded smart devices, often called “smart objects”, inter-connected through the Internet. The IoT will turn into a mammoth system of associated “things” (which additionally incorporates individuals). Communication will be between human-human, human-things, and things-things. Today this has given a vision of bigger things like IoT enabled interconnected Cyber Physical Systems (CPS).
Companies and organizations are therefore very interested towards these concepts. Announced at the Hanover Messe Trade Show 2016, Microsoft and Rolls-Royce will collaborate to support Rolls-Royce intelligent engines and offer 'advanced operational intelligence to airlines'. Rolls-Royce will integrate Microsoft Azure IoT Suite and its Cortana Intelligence Suite to gather information on flight operations, fuel usage and maintenance planning. More to say, the Virgin Atlantic are also investing in the IoT by making a fleet of Boeing 787 aircrafts and cargo devices connected with IoT devices and sensors. Each connected plane can expect to produce over half a terabyte of data per flight. Thus, decision making algorithms can be applied to report mechanical problems before they happen.
While sounding laughable at first, the 'internet of cows' is a great example of a useful IoT application. Working with the National Trust, British Telecommunications (BT) monitored the cows’ location in order to prevent theft. Currently, various companies are also keen to use IoT protocols in the development process of cyber physical manufacturing systems. A recent study published by the World Bank estimates that over the next 10 years there will be two million unfilled Information and Communication Technology-related jobs globally. In addition, over 95% of companies say they will be using the IoT in some form within the next three years. This requires educational institutions to better prepare students for employment by these companies.
The Secure Internet of Things Project is a cross-disciplinary research effort between computer science and electrical engineering faculty at Stanford University, University of California - Berkeley, and the University of Michigan. The research effort focuses on three key domains:
• Hardware and software systems: Construction of hardware and software systems that will make the IoT enabled systems intelligent and secure.
• Analytics: Integration and analysis of the enormous streams of physical world instrumentation with all of the existing data.
• Security: Developing pervasive sensing and analytic systems to preserve and protect user security.
Tyfone, with the support of MIT Sandbox Innovation Fund Program, is creating a unique opportunity to help secure the Internet of Things. Harvard University has established a six-year, $8.4 million research alliance with a group of Tata companies including Tata Sons, Tata Communications, Tata Steel, and Jaguar Land Rover. The initial focus of the research alliance will be on robotics, wearable technologies, and the “internet of things” (IoT), tapping into recent strides in the field of advanced materials. Over time, the scope could broaden to encompass new research areas of mutual interest. The University of California - Berkeley have built a specialized laboratory to go beyond smart-phones. They are aiming towards a human-centered design research to explore disruptive opportunities with flexible/stretchable wearable in the Internet of Things.
Some of the characteristics of IoT are Inter connectivity, Things related Services, Heterogeneity, Dynamic Changes, Enormous Scale etc. Today rapidly development of electronic gadgets with computing capabilities, storage along with embedding short range transceivers enabling new form of communications between people and things and things themselves. This new phenomena has added a new dimension to the world of information and communication technologies (ICTs). That is why IoT makes it possible from anytime, any place connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything.
So Internet of Things is a technological revolution which is totally a dynamic in nature. It has been converging multiple technologies creating new dimension of services that improves the quality of life of consumers and productivity of enterprises. From the consumer point of view, the IoT has the potential applications such as deliver solutions that dramatically improve energy efficiency, security, health, education, connected cars, smart homes, smart retails and many other aspects of daily life. For enterprises, IoT can underpin solutions that improve decision-making and productivity in manufacturing, retail, agriculture and other sectors.
Technologies to support IoT
Some of the technologies converging to support and enable IoT applications are architecture, Identification, Communications, Network Technology, Network Discovery, Software and algorithm, Hardware Technology, Data and signal processing, Discovery and Search Engine, Net-work Management, Power and Energy Storage, Cyber Security, Information security etc. Challenges and research areas of IoT [11,12,13,14]
• Cloud computing
• Cyber physical system
• Autonomic Computing
• Social Networks
IoT represents a vision in which the Internet extends into the real world embracing everyday objects. Physical items are no longer disconnected from the virtual world, but can be controlled remotely and can act as physical access points to Internet services. The IoT vision is grounded in the belief that the steady advances in microelectronics, communications and information technology witnessed in recent years will continue into the foreseeable future. "Smart" objects play a key role in the IoT vision, since embedded communication and information technology have the potential to revolutionize the utility of these objects. Using sensors, they are able to perceive their context and via built-in networking capabilities they would be able to communicate with each other, access Internet services and interact with people. . The research in this emerging area is one of the main thrust areas under CPS
Broad topics of research are as given below, but not limited to these topics.
1. IoT Network Design and Architecture
1) IoT network design and Cloud networks
2) Networking technologies for data centres
3) Software defined networking
4) Network virtualization technologies
5) Embedded system architecture
6) Adaptive and cognitive networks
7) Wireless networks for IoT and Cloud
8) IoT-enabled home networks.
9) IoT and SMART cities
2. IoT enabled Software Architectures and Middleware
1) Software architecture for IoT and cloud
2) Inter-cloud interfaces
3) Programming models
4) Services provisioning and management
5) Hybrid cloud infrastructure for IoT
6) IoT based Application development
7) SMART censors, Use cases and Experiences
8) Requirements analysis and modelling
9) IoT Service integration
10) Middleware for cloud and IoT
11) IoT based data acquisition, knowledge management and semantics.
3. Mobile Cloud Services
1) Mobile cloud and IoT services
2) Mobiles as censors, networks and applications
3) Mobile cloud and IoT models
4) Spatial Mobility, geo-location and management
5) Mobile multimedia services
6) Pervasive and ubiquitous services in cloud and IoT
7) Mobile service architectures and frameworks.
4. Data and Knowledge Management
1) Data models, Tiny/small databases for IoT devices
2) Knowledge management, Rules, Semantics and Ontologies.
5. Context-awareness and Location-awareness
1) Context-awareness in cloud and IoT
2) Location-aware services and Spatial data integration
3) Cloud-based context-aware IoT
4) Self adaptive services
5) Context-aware models and protocols
6) Context-aware services - transportation system, buildings, roads, water supply, environment and healthcare.
6. Security, Privacy and Trust
1) IoT and cloud security
2) Privacy issues
3) Reliability of cloud and IoT
4) Accountability and audit
5) Authentication and authorization
6) Cryptography; Identity theft; Data loss or leakage
7) Trust management
7. Software-defined Networking
1. Software-defined Networking (SDN) support for Cloud and IoT
2. IoT Network virtualization
3. Software defined data and storage
4. SDN models and architectures
5. QoS evaluation
6. SDN scalability and optimization
7. SDN security and privacy.
8. Performance Evaluation and Modelling
1. Performance modelling in cloud and IoT
2. Evaluation techniques
3. Performance monitoring
4. Scheduling and application workflows
5. Scalability in cloud and IoT
6. Fault-tolerance and recovery
7. Capacity planning and elasticity
9. Networking and Communication Protocols
1. Transmission protocols and algorithms
2. Communication protocols for data centres
3. Software defined network protocols
4. Energy-efficient networks
5. Network security and privacy
6. P2P and overlay networks for IoT and cloud
7. Measurement and simulations.
10. IoT Services and Applications
1. Architectures of IoT services
2. IoT application areas, IoT and M2M
3. Tools and technologies for IoT services
4. Business models for IoT applications
5. Energy optimization in IoT
6. Modeling and simulation of IoT applications;
11. SMART Environment
1. Smart cloud and IoT
2. Smart homes and cities
3. Adaptive user interfaces for smart applications
4. Interconnection of smart devices (things)
5. Dynamic urban communications
6. Indoor communications
7. SMART healthcare and assisted living
8. SMART transportation and vehicles
9. SMART phones applications and services
12. Intelligent Systems for Cloud and Services Computing
1. Agent-based systems and applications
2. Semantic web and services
3. Ontological models
4. Intelligent resource virtualization
5. Knowledge management
6. Intelligent Service Level Agreement (SLA) and Quality assurance.
13. Energy Efficiency
1. Energy efficient service provisioning
2. Energy efficient resource utilization
3. Data storage and processing
4. Energy-efficient networking
5. SMART devices and tools
6. Energy metrics and benchmarks
7. Energy-aware hardware.
1. Architectures and models
2. Virtualization of cloud resources
3. Network virtualization
4. Cloud virtualization and IoT
5. Performance of virtualization
6. Reliability and security.
15. Clouds at the Edges
1. Cloud at the Edges
2. Distribution of data centres at network edges
3. Hierarchy of computing capacity and centralised clouds
4. IoT applications and network edges
5. Processing of IoT data at network edges
6. Optimization of data traffic and latencies.
7. industrial applications of IoT and cloud